Californium

Californium Navigation

Other Elements

By Name

By Symbol

By Number

Solutions manuals and the Numerari scientific calculator from KnowledgeDoor Learn more about our solutions manuals Learn
more about Numerari

Quantity

Californium Quick Reference

Click button to see citations

Notes

Symbol

Cf

Atomic Number

98

Oxidation States

5

unverified

4

less common

3

more common

2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

1.3

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Rn] 5f10 7s2

[Rn] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of radon

Orbital Filling Order

[Rn] 7s2 5f10

[Rn] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of radon

Term Symbol

5I8

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I  (1)

 6.2817 eV

II (2)

11.8 eV   

Density

solid, 25 °C

15.100 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

16.50 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1173 ± 30 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid, 300 K

10 W/(m K)

estimated

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

168 pm

double bond

140 pm

Quantity

Californium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I  (1)

 6.2817 eV

II (2)

11.8 eV   

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

134939 ± 7 eV 

LI   (2s)

 26010 ± 7 eV 

LII  (2p1/2)

 25108 ± 5 eV 

LIII (2p3/2)

 19907 ± 5 eV 

see all 24 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Rn] 5f10 7s2

[Rn] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of radon

Orbital Filling Order

[Rn] 7s2 5f10

[Rn] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of radon

Term Symbol

5I8

see expanded configuration ...

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.972

ωL1

0.244

ωL2

0.490

ωL3

0.560

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.03 

F13

0.54 

F23

0.197

Quantity

Californium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

solid, 25 °C

15.100 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

16.50 cm3/mol

Physical Form

hexagonal or cubic metal

Quantity

Californium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

5

unverified

4

less common

3

more common

2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

1.3

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

1.2

Nagle Electronegativity

1.13

Quantity

Californium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1173 ± 30 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid, 300 K

10 W/(m K)

estimated

Quantity

Californium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-71-3

Quantity

Californium Atomic Size

Notes

Orbital Radius

159.8 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

168 pm

double bond

140 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6

109 pm  

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 6

 96.1 pm

coordination number: 8

106 pm  

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6

95 pm  

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 6

82.1 pm

coordination number: 8

92 pm  

Quantity

Californium Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-californium

symbol

αCf

allotrope

β-californium

symbol

βCf

Quantity

Californium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1950

discoverer

Stanley G. Thompson

death

July 16, 1976

discoverer

Kenneth Street, Jr.

death

1976

discoverer

Albert Ghiorso

birth

July 15, 1915

discoverer

Glenn Theodore Seaborg

birth

April 19, 1912

death

February 25, 1999

location of discovery

Berkeley, California

Origin of Element Name

origin

California

origin description

place—U.S. state

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Cf

origin

californium

origin description

element name

Quantity

Californium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

californium

German

Californium

Italian

californio

Spanish

californio

Portuguese

califórnio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

californide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

californium

Ligands

californido

Heteroatomic Anion

californate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

californa

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

californy

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

Connelly, Neil G., Ture Damhus, Richard M. Hartshorn, and Alan T. Hutton. Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry: IUPAC Recommendations 2005. Cambridge: RSC Publishing, 2005.

de Podesta, Michael. Understanding the Properties of Matter, 2nd edition. London: Taylor & Francis, 2002.

Dronskowski, Richard. Computational Chemistry of Solid State Materials. Weinheim, Germany: WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2005.

Emsley, John. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Emsley, John. The Elements, 3rd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Firestone, Richard B. Table of Isotopes, 8th edition, volume 2. Edited by Virginia S. Shirley, with assistant editors Coral M. Baglin, S. Y. Frank Chu, and Jean Zipkin. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996.

Greenwood, N. N., and A. Earnshaw. Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997.

Ho, C. Y., R. W. Powell, and P. E. Liley. "Thermal Conductivity of the Elements: A Comprehensive Review." Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, volume 3, supplement 1, 1974, pp. I–1 to I–796.

Hoffman, Darleane C., Albert Ghiorso, and Glenn T. Seaborg. The Transuranium People: The Inside Story. London, England: Imperial College Press, 2000.

Huheey, James E., Ellen A. Keiter, and Richard L Keiter. Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th edition. New York: HarperCollins College Publishers, 1993.

Ihde, Aaron J. The Development of Modern Chemistry. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1984.

Indelicato, P., J. P. Santos, S. Boucard, and J.-P. Desclaux. "QED and Relativistic Corrections in Superheavy Elements." The European Physical Journal D - Atomic, Molecular, Optical and Plasma Physics, volume 45, number 1, 2007, pp. 155–170. doi:10.1140/epjd/e2007-00229-y

Jr., Elbert J. Little,, and Mark M. Jones. "A Complete Table of Electronegativities." Journal of Chemical Education, volume 37, number 5, 1960, pp. 231–233. doi:10.1021/ed037p231

Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas, and Peter Scott. The f Elements. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Konings, Rudy J. M., and Ondrej Beneš. "The Thermodynamic Properties of the f-Elements and Their Compounds. I. The Lanthanide and Actinide Metals." Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, volume 39, number 4, 2010, pp. 043102–1 to 043102–47. doi:10.1063/1.3474238

Krause, M. O. "Atomic Radiative and Radiationless Yields for K and L Shells." Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, volume 8, number 2, 1979, pp. 307–327.

Lide, David R., editor. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 88th edition. Boca Raton, Florida: Taylor & Francis Group, 2008.

Marshall, James L. Discovery of the Elements: A Search for the Fundamental Principles of the Universe, 2nd edition. Boston, MA: Pearson Custom Publishing, 2002.

Martin, W. C. "Electronic Structure of the Elements." The European Physical Journal C — Particles and Fields, volume 15, number 1–4, 2000, pp. 78–79. doi:10.1007/BF02683401

Nagle, Jeffrey K. "Atomic Polarizability and Electronegativity." Journal of the American Chemical Society, volume 112, number 12, 1990, pp. 4741–4747. doi:10.1021/ja00168a019

Nobel Foundation. Glenn T. Seaborg: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1951/seaborg-bio.html. Accessed on July 1, 2009.

Pauling, Linus. The Nature of the Chemical Bond, 3rd edition. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1960.

Pekka Pyykkö. Self-Consistent, Year-2009 Covalent Radii. http://www.chem.helsinki.fi/~pyykko/Radii09.pdf. Accessed on November 20, 2010.

Porter, F.T., and M. S. Freedman. "Recommended Atomic Electron Binding Energies, 1s to 6p3/2, for the Heavy Elements, Z = 84 to 103." Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, volume 7, number 4, 1978, pp. 1267–1284.

Pyykkö, Pekka, and Michiko Atsumi. "Molecular Double-Bond Covalent Radii for Elements Li-E112." Chemistry - A European Journal, volume 15, number 46, 2009, pp. 12770–12779. doi:10.1002/chem.200901472

Pyykkö, Pekka, and Michiko Atsumi. "Molecular Single-Bond Covalent Radii for Elements 1-118." Chemistry - A European Journal, volume 15, number 1, 2009, pp. 186–197. doi:10.1002/chem.200800987

Ringnes, Vivi. "Origin of the Names of Chemical Elements." Journal of Chemical Education, volume 66, number 9, 1989, pp. 731–738. doi:10.1021/ed066p731

Sansonetti, J. E., and W. C. Martin. "Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopic Data." Journal Of Physical And Chemical Reference Data, volume 34, number 4, 2005, pp. 1559–2259. doi:10.1063/1.1800011

Scientific Group Thermodata Europe (SGTE). Pure Substances: Part 1—Elements and Compounds from AgBr to Ba3N2. Edited by I. Hurtado and D. Neuschütz. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1999. doi:10.1007/10652891_3

Seaborg, Glenn T., and Walter D. Loveland. The Elements Beyond Uranium. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1990.

Shannon, R. D. "Revised Effective Ionic Radii and Systematic Studies of Interatomic Distances in Halides and Chalcogenides." Acta Crystallographica Section A, volume 32, number 5, 1976, pp. 751–767. doi:10.1107/S0567739476001551

Silbey, Robert J., Robert A. Alberty, and Moungi G. Bawendi. Physical Chemistry, 4th edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.

Singman, Charles N. "Atomic Volume and Allotropy of the Elements." Journal of Chemical Education, volume 61, number 2, 1984, pp. 137–142. doi:10.1021/ed061p137

Thompson, S. G., A. Ghiorso, and G. T. Seaborg. "The New Element Berkelium (Atomic Number 97)." Physical Review, volume 80, number 5, 1950, pp. 781–789. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.80.781

Thompson, S. G., K. Street, Jr., A. Ghiorso, and G. T. Seaborg. "The New Element Californium (Atomic Number 98)." Physical Review, volume 80, number 5, 1950, pp. 790–796. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.80.790

Waber, J. T., and Don T. Cromer. "Orbital Radii of Atoms and Ions." Journal of Chemical Physics, volume 42, number 12, 1965, pp. 4116–4123. doi:10.1063/1.1695904

Weeks, Mary Elvira, and Henry M. Leicester. Discovery of the Elements, 7th edition. Easton, PA: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968.

Yaws, Carl L. The Yaws Handbook of Physical Properties for Hydrocarbons and Chemicals. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company, 2005.