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Oxidation States Navigation

By Name

By Symbol

By Number

Element

Oxidation States

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Notes

Actinium

 3

Aluminum

 3

more common

 1

less common

Americium

 7

unverified

 6

less common

 5

less common

 4

less common

 3

more common

 2

less common

Antimony

 5

less common with disagreement

 3

more common with disagreement

-3

less common with disagreement

Argon

 0

Arsenic

 5

more common with disagreement

 3

more common with disagreement

 2

less common

-3

less common with disagreement

Astatine

 7

less common

 5

less common

 3

less common

 1

less common with disagreement

-1

more common with disagreement

Barium

 2

Berkelium

 4

less common

 3

more common

 2

less common

Beryllium

 2

Bismuth

 5

less common

 3

more common

 1

less common

-3

less common

Bohrium

 7

predicted

 6

predicted

 5

predicted

 4

predicted

 3

predicted

Boron

 3

more common

 2

less common

 1

less common

Bromine

 7

less common

 5

more common with disagreement

 4

less common

 3

less common with disagreement

 1

less common with disagreement

 0

less common

-1

more common

Cadmium

 2

more common

 1

less common

Calcium

 2

Californium

 5

unverified

 4

less common

 3

more common

 2

less common

Carbon

 4

more common

 3

less common

 2

less common

 1

less common

-1

less common

-2

less common

-3

less common

-4

more common

Cerium

 4

less common with disagreement

 3

more common

 2

less common

Cesium

 1

more common

-1

less common

Chlorine

 7

less common with disagreement

 6

less common

 5

less common with disagreement

 4

less common

 3

less common with disagreement

 2

less common

 1

less common with disagreement

 0

less common

-1

more common

Chromium

 6

more common with disagreement

 5

less common

 4

less common

 3

more common

 2

more common with disagreement

 1

less common

 0

less common

-1

less common

-2

less common

-3

less common

-4

less common

Cobalt

 5

less common

 4

less common

 3

more common with disagreement

 2

more common

 1

less common

 0

less common

-1

less common

Copernicium

 2

predicted

 1

predicted

Copper

 4

less common

 3

less common

 2

more common

 1

more common with disagreement

 0

less common

Curium

 6

unverified

 5

unverified

 4

less common

 3

more common

 2

less common

Darmstadtium

 6

predicted

 5

predicted

 4

predicted

 3

predicted

 2

predicted

 1

predicted

Dubnium

 5

predicted

 4

predicted

Dysprosium

 4

less common

 3

more common

 2

less common

Einsteinium

 4

unverified

 3

more common

 2

less common with disagreement

Erbium

 3

Europium

 3

more common

 2

less common with disagreement

Fermium

 4

unverified

 3

more common

 2

less common with disagreement

Flerovium

 2

Fluorine

 0

less common

-1

more common

Francium

 1

Gadolinium

 3

more common with disagreement

 2

less common

 1

less common

Gallium

 3

more common

 2

less common

 1

less common

Germanium

 4

more common with disagreement

 3

less common

 2

less common with disagreement

 1

less common

Gold

 7

less common

 5

less common

 3

more common

 2

less common

 1

less common with disagreement

 0

less common

-1

less common

Hafnium

 4

more common

 3

less common

 2

less common

 1

less common

Hassium

 8

predicted

 7

predicted

 6

predicted

 5

predicted

 4

predicted

 3

predicted

 2

predicted

 1

predicted

Helium

 0

Holmium

 3

more common

 2

less common

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

Ebbing, Darrell D., and Steven D. Gammon. General Chemistry, 8th edition. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005.

Emsley, John. The Elements, 3rd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Greenwood, N. N., and A. Earnshaw. Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997.

Huheey, James E., Ellen A. Keiter, and Richard L Keiter. Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th edition. New York: HarperCollins College Publishers, 1993.

Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas, and Peter Scott. The f Elements. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Keller, Jr., O. Lewin, and Glenn T. Seaborg. "Chemistry of the Transactinide Elements." pp. 139–166 in Annual Review Of Nuclear Science. Edited by Emilio Segre. Palo Alto, California: Annual Reviews Inc., 1977.

Oxtoby, David W., H. P. Gillis, and Alan Campion. Principles of Modern Chemistry, 6th edition. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2008.

Seaborg, Glenn T., and Walter D. Loveland. The Elements Beyond Uranium. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1990.