Holmium

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Holmium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Ho

Atomic Number

67

Atomic Weight

Rounded

164.9

for regular calculations

Standard

164.93032 ± 0.00002

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

3

more common

2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

1.23

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f11 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f11

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

4I15/2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 6.0215 eV     

II  (2)

11.80 eV       

III (3)

22.84 ± 0.10 eV

IV  (4)

42.5 ± 0.6 eV  

Density

liquid, 1747.15 K

8.340 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

8.800 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

18.74 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1742 ± 5 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

2973.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

300 K

polycrystalline

16.2 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

22.2 W/(m K)

perpendicular to c-axis

13.8 W/(m K)

273.2 K

polycrystalline

15.9 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

21.5 W/(m K)

perpendicular to c-axis

13.6 W/(m K)

see all 54 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

166 pm

double bond

133 pm

Atomic Radius

174 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

17.2 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

251 kJ/mol

Quantity

Holmium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 6.0215 eV     

II  (2)

11.80 eV       

III (3)

22.84 ± 0.10 eV

IV  (4)

42.5 ± 0.6 eV  

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

55618 eV  

LI   (2s)

 9394 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

 8918 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

 8071 eV  

see all 19 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f11 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f11

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

4I15/2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

65.6912

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

65.6912

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

24.7278

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

49.4556

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 13 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

90.6%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.940

ωL1

0.116

ωL2

0.208

ωL3

0.193

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.166

F13

0.296

F23

0.144

Quantity

Holmium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 1747.15 K

8.340 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

8.800 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

164.9 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

164.93032 ± 0.00002 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

18.74 cm3/mol

Physical Form

silvery metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

11.2×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

solid, 293 K

2760 m/s

calculated value

Young's Modulus

64.8 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.231

Electrical Resistivity

solid, 295 K

77.7×10-8 Ohm m

Vickers Hardness

cast, 293 K

481 MN/m2

annealed, 293 K

412 MN/m2

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

39.7 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.0252 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

19 cm3

Quantity

Holmium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

3

more common

2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

1.23

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

1.10

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.23

Nagle Electronegativity

1.10

Cohesive Energy

per mole

302 kJ/mol    

per atom

  3.14 eV/atom

Quantity

Holmium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1742 ± 5 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

2973.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

300 K

polycrystalline

16.2 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

22.2 W/(m K)

perpendicular to c-axis

13.8 W/(m K)

273.2 K

polycrystalline

15.9 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

21.5 W/(m K)

perpendicular to c-axis

13.6 W/(m K)

see all 54 conductivities ...

Critical Point

7570 K

Vapor Pressure

2691 °C

100 kPa

2137 °C

10 kPa

1767 °C

1 kPa

1502 °C

100 Pa

1311 °C

10 Pa

1159 °C

1 Pa

Curie Point

20 K

Neel Point

132.245 ± 0.080 K

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

17.2 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

251 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

27.15 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.165 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

6 ± 1 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

190 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

161 K

Quantity

Holmium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-60-0

Quantity

Holmium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

174 pm

Orbital Radius

172.7 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

166 pm

double bond

133 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

192 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 6

104.1 pm

coordination number: 8

115.5 pm

coordination number: 9

121.2 pm

coordination number: 10

126 pm  

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 6

 90.1 pm

coordination number: 8

101.5 pm

coordination number: 9

107.2 pm

coordination number: 10

112 pm  

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

97 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

175 pm

Quantity

Holmium Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-holmium

symbol

αHo

allotrope

β-holmium

symbol

βHo

alternate symbol

γHo

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

349 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

3.22×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Holmium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1879

discoverer

Per Teodor Cleve

birth

February 10, 1840

death

June 18, 1905

location of discovery

Uppsala, Sweden

Origin of Element Name

origin

holmia

origin description

place—Latin for Stockholm

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Ho

origin

holmium

origin description

element name

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

name

element X

no matching symbol specified

Quantity

Holmium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

1.3 ppm

Earth's Mantle

159 ppb

primitive mantle

Bulk Earth

0.10 ppm

Ocean Water

2×10-7 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

4.7 ppm

U.S. Coal

0.35 ppm

estimated from USGS and literature data

Solar System

0.0889

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

0.26 ± 0.16

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

0.51 ± 0.04

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Holmium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

holmium

German

Holmium

Italian

olmio

Spanish

holmio

Portuguese

hólmio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

holmide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

holmium

Ligands

holmido

Heteroatomic Anion

holmate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

holma

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

holmy

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