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Element

Boiling Point

( at 1 atm unless specified )

Click button to see citations

Notes

Actinium

3471.15 K 

Aluminum

2790.81 K 

Americium

2284.15 K 

Antimony

1860.15 K 

Argon

10 bar

 116.59 K 

2 bar

  94.28 K 

1.5 bar

  91.18 K 

1 atm

  87.303 K

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point

1 bar

  87.17 K 

0.8 bar

  85.12 K 

Arsenic

gray arsenic

 616 °C   

sublimes

Astatine

 607.00 K 

Barium

2170.15 K 

Beryllium

2757.00 K 

Bismuth

1837.15 K 

Boron

4273.15 K 

Bromine

 331.90 K 

Cadmium

1040.15 K 

Calcium

1757.00 K 

Carbon

graphite

3825 °C   

sublimes

Cerium

3716.15 K 

Cesium

 944.15 K 

Chlorine

 239.11 K 

Chromium

2944.15 K 

Cobalt

3200.15 K 

Copper

2835.15 K 

Curium

3100 C    

Dysprosium

2840.15 K 

Erbium

3141.15 K 

Europium

1802.15 K 

Flerovium

 420 K    

predicted value

Fluorine

84.958 ± 0.003 K

Francium

 946.15 K 

Gadolinium

3546.15 K 

Gallium

2477.15 K 

Germanium

3100.00 K 

Gold

3129.15 K 

Hafnium

4876.15 K 

Helium

   4.22 K 

helium-4

   4.21 K 

helium-3

   3.19 K 

Holmium

2973.15 K 

Hydrogen

  20.388 K

Normal hydrogen consists of 75% orthohydrogen and 25% parahydrogen. This temperature is an ITS-90 second-quality, secondary reference point.

Indium

2345.15 K 

Iodine

 457.56 K 

Iridium

  4898 ± 50 K   

reference stated that the uncertainty may be larger than indicated

Iron

3133.35 K 

Krypton

 119.81 K 

Lanthanum

3737.15 K 

Lead

2022.15 K 

Lithium

1615.00   

Lutetium

3675.15 K 

Magnesium

1363.15 K 

Manganese

2334.15 K 

Mercury

 629.769 K

ITS-90 second-quality, secondary reference point

Molybdenum

4912.15 K 

Neodymium

3347.15 K 

Neon

  27.097 K

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point

Neptunium

3902 C    

Nickel

3186.15 K 

Niobium

5017.15 K 

Nitrogen

  77.352 K

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point

Osmium

  5576 ± 30 K   

reference stated that the uncertainty may be larger than indicated

Oxygen

molecular oxygen

10 bar

 119.62 K 

2.0 bar

  97.24 K 

1.5 bar

  94.12 K 

1 atm

  90.197 K

1 bar

  90.06 K 

0.8 bar

  87.99 K 

0.6 bar

  85.46 K 

ozone, 1 atm

 161.80 K 

Palladium

  3263 ± 50 K   

reference stated that the uncertainty may be larger than indicated

Phosphorus

white phosphorus

 553.65 K 

Platinum

  4149 ± 20 K   

reference stated that the uncertainty may be larger than indicated

Plutonium

3501.15 K 

Polonium

1235.15 K 

Potassium

1031.00 K 

Praseodymium

3793.15 K 

Promethium

3273.15 K 

Protactinium

4722 °C   

Radium

1799.15 K 

Radon

 211.45 K 

Rhenium

5869.15 K 

Rhodium

  4114 ± 90 K   

reference stated that the uncertainty may be larger than indicated

Rubidium

 961.15 K 

Ruthenium

  4592 ± 30 K   

reference stated that the uncertainty may be larger than indicated

Rutherfordium

5800 K    

predicted value

Samarium

2067.15 K 

Scandium

3109.15 K 

Selenium

gray selenium

 958.15 K 

vitreous selenium

 958.15 K 

α-monoclinic selenium

 958.15 K 

Silicon

1 atm

2900 °C   

1.33×10-4 Pa

1080 °C   

Silver

2485.00 K 

Sodium

1156.090 K

ITS-90 second-quality, secondary reference point

Strontium

1655.15 K 

Sulfur

 717.764 K

ITS-90 second-quality, secondary reference point

α-orthorhombic sulfur

 717.76 K 

β-monoclinic sulfur

 717.76 K 

Tantalum

5731.15 K 

Technetium

4538.15 K 

Tellurium

1261.15 K 

Terbium

3503.15 K 

Thallium

1746.15 K 

Thorium

5061.15 K 

Thulium

2223.15 K 

Tin

gray tin

2875.15 K 

white tin

2875.15 K 

Titanium

3560.15 K 

Tungsten

5828.15 K 

Ununoctium

 263 K    

predicted value

Ununpentium

1400 K    

predicted value

Ununtrium

1400 K    

predicted value

Uranium

4404.15 K 

Vanadium

3653.15 K 

Xenon

 165.06 K 

Ytterbium

1469.15 K 

Yttrium

3618.15 K 

Zinc

1180.15 K 

Zirconium

4682.15 K 

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

Arblaster, J. W. "Vapour Pressure Equations for the Platinum Group Elements." Platinum Metals Review, volume 51, number 3, 2007, pp. 130–135. doi:10.1595/147106707X213830

Bedford, R. E., G. Bonnier, H. Maas, and F. Pavese. "Recommended Values of Temperature on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 for a Selected Set of Secondary Reference Points." Metrologia, volume 33, number 2, 1996, pp. 133–154. doi:10.1088/0026-1394/33/2/3

Enss, Christian, and Siegfried Hunklinger. Low-Temperature Physics. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2005.

Greenwood, N. N., and A. Earnshaw. Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997.

Guminski, C. "The F-Hg system (Fluorine-Mercury)." Journal of Phase Equilibria, volume 22, number 5, 2001, pp. 578–581.

Jr., O. Lewin Keller,, and Glenn T. Seaborg. "Chemistry of the Transactinide Elements." pp. 139–166 in Annual Review Of Nuclear Science. Edited by Emilio Segre. Palo Alto, California: Annual Reviews Inc., 1977.

Korpinarov, N., M. Marinov, D. Dimova-Malinovska, H. Nichev, M. Konstantinova, and D. Vasilev. "Silicon Nanowires and Whiskers Obtained by Arc Discharge." Journal of Physics: Conference Series, volume 113, 2008, 012007 (5pp). doi:10.1088/1742-6596/113/1/012007

Lide, David R., editor. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 88th edition. Boca Raton, Florida: Taylor & Francis Group, 2008.

Nicholas, J. V., and D. R. White. "Temperature." pp. 8–41 in Measurement of the Thermodynamic Properties of Single Phases. Edited by A. R. H. Goodwin, W. A. Wakeham, and K. N. Marsh. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 2003.

Seaborg, Glenn T., and Walter D. Loveland. The Elements Beyond Uranium. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1990.

Stewart, Richard B., and Richard T. Jacobsen. "Thermodynamic Properties of Argon from the Triple Point to 1200 K with Pressures to 1000 MPa." Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, volume 18, number 2, 1989, pp. 639–798.

Stewart, Richard B., Richard T. Jacobsen, and w. Wagner. "Thermodynamic Properties of Oxygen from the Triple Point to 300 K with Pressures to 80 MPa." Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, volume 20, number 5, 1991, pp. 917–1021.

Yaws, Carl L. The Yaws Handbook of Physical Properties for Hydrocarbons and Chemicals. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company, 2005.