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Zinc Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Zn

Atomic Number

30

Atomic Weight

65.38 ± 0.02

Oxidation States

2

more common

1

less common

0

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

1.65

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ar] 3d10 4s2

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ar] 4s2 3d10

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Term Symbol

1S0

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 9.394199 eV       

II  (2)

17.96439 eV        

III (3)

39.7233 ± 0.0001 eV

IV  (4)

59.57 ± 0.02 eV    

see all 30 energies ...

Electron Affinity

<0 eV

<0 cm-1

Density

liquid, 812.15 K

6.427 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

7.140 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

9.16 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 atm

692.677 K

ITS-90 fixed point (freezing point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

1180.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

111 W/(m K)

300 K, polycrystalline

116 W/(m K)

298.2 K, polycrystalline

116 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

117 W/(m K)

200 K, polycrystalline

118 W/(m K)

see all 43 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

118 pm

double bond

120 pm

Atomic Radius

137 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

6.67 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

115.3 kJ/mol

Quantity

Zinc Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 9.394199 eV       

II  (2)

17.96439 eV        

III (3)

39.7233 ± 0.0001 eV

IV  (4)

59.57 ± 0.02 eV    

see all 30 energies ...

Electron Affinity

<0 eV

<0 cm-1

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

9659 eV  

LI   (2s)

1196.2 eV

LII  (2p1/2)

1044.9 eV

LIII (2p3/2)

1021.8 eV

see all 9 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ar] 3d10 4s2

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ar] 4s2 3d10

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Term Symbol

1S0

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

29.3245

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

29.3245

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

10.9140

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

21.8280

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 7 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

73.8%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.486 

ωL1

0.0018

ωL2

0.011 

ωL3

0.012 

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.29 

F13

0.54 

F23

0.026

Quantity

Zinc Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 812.15 K

6.427 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

7.140 g/cm3

Molar Mass

65.38 ± 0.02 g/mol

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

9.16 cm3/mol

Physical Form

blue-white metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

30.2×10-6 K-1

293 K

29.9×10-6 K-1

280 K

29.8×10-6 K-1

273 K

29.7×10-6 K-1

260 K

29.6×10-6 K-1

see all 22 coefficients ...

Speed of Sound

liquid, 450 °C, longitudinal wave

2700 m/s

solid

room temperature, rolled, longitudinal wave

4210 m/s

room temperature, rolled, shear wave

2440 m/s

room temperature, rolled, extensional wave

3850 m/s

20 °C

longitudinal wave

4187 m/s

shear wave

2421 m/s

291 K

3700 m/s

Young's Modulus

104.5 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.249

Electrical Resistivity

solid

200 K

3.742×10-8 Ohm m

273 K

5.479×10-8 Ohm m

293 K

5.964×10-8 Ohm m

300 K

6.13×10-8 Ohm m

400 K

8.64×10-8 Ohm m

see all 44 resistivities ...

Contact Potential

3.78 eV

Photoelectric Work Function

3.73 eV

Superconducting Transition Temperature

0.8500 K

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point

Superconducting Critical Magnetic Field at Absolute Zero

53×10-4 T

Superconducting Energy Gap

0 K

2.4×10-4 eV

Mineralogical Hardness

2.5

Reflectivity

surface polished

1.0 μm

80%

2.0 μm

92%

4.0 μm

97%

see all 6 reflectivities ...

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

59.8 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.0167 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

9 cm3

Quantity

Zinc Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

2

more common

1

less common

0

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

1.65

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity

hybridsp

1.65

Sanderson Electronegativity

2.223

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

1.66

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

9.395 eV

Pauling units

1.59    

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.65

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

4.1332 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

1.46

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

4.45 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.6

Free Electron Fermi Surface Parameters

300 K

electron concentration

13.10×1022 cm-3

radius parameter

2.31

fermi wavevector

1.57×108 cm-1

fermi velocity

1.82×108 cm/s

fermi energy

9.39 eV

fermi temperature

10.90×104 K

Chemical Hardness

4.94 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

130 kJ/mol    

per atom

  1.35 eV/atom

Quantity

Zinc Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 atm

692.677 K

ITS-90 fixed point (freezing point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

1180.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

111 W/(m K)

300 K, polycrystalline

116 W/(m K)

298.2 K, polycrystalline

116 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

117 W/(m K)

200 K, polycrystalline

118 W/(m K)

see all 43 conductivities ...

Critical Point

3380 K

Vapor Pressure

912 °C

100 kPa

717 °C

10 kPa

579 °C

1 kPa

see all 16 pressures ...

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

6.67 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

115.3 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

25.390 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.388 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

0.64 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

329 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

237 K

Quantity

Zinc Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-66-6

DOT Number

dust

1436

ICSC Number

powder

1205

RTECS Number

ZG8600000

UN Number

powder

1436

Quantity

Zinc Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

137 pm

Orbital Radius

106.5 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

118 pm

double bond

120 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

122 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 4

 74 pm  

coordination number: 5

 82 pm  

coordination number: 6

 88.0 pm

coordination number: 8

104 pm  

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 4

60 pm  

coordination number: 5

68 pm  

coordination number: 6

74.0 pm

coordination number: 8

90 pm  

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +2

74 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

88 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

2.1×102 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

224 pm

Bondi Van Der Waals Radius

139 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

135 pm

Quantity

Zinc Crystal Structure

Notes

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

266 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

6.55×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Zinc History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

circa 1200

discoverer

unknown

location of discovery

India

Origin of Element Name

origin

zinke

origin description

word—German

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Zn

origin

zinc

origin description

element name

U.S. Towns Named After Elements

Zinc, Arkansas

Quantity

Zinc Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

7.0×101 ppm

Earth's Mantle

53.5 ppm

primitive mantle

Ocean Water

0.005 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

470 ppm

Ridge

380 ppm

River Water

0.01 ppm

U.S. Coal

53 ppm

Human Body

2.3 g

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

75 ppm to 170 ppm

Human Hair

220 ppm

Human Kidney

200 ppm

Human Liver

240 ppm

Human Muscle

240 ppm

Human Nail

73 ppm to 300 ppm

Bacteria

83 ppm

Ferns

60 ppm to 400 ppm

Fungi

14 ppm to 340 ppm

Solar System

1260

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

4.60 ± 0.08

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

4.66 ± 0.04

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Zinc Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

zinc

German

Zink

Italian

zinco

Spanish

cinc

Portuguese

zinco

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

zincide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

zinc

Ligands

zincido

Heteroatomic Anion

zincate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

zinca

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

zincy

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

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