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Silver Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Ag

Atomic Number

47

Atomic Weight

Rounded

107.9

for regular calculations

Standard

107.8682 ± 0.0002

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

3

less common

2

less common

1

more common

0

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 1

1.93

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Kr] 4d10 5s1

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Orbital Filling Order

[Kr] 5s1 4d10

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Term Symbol

2S1/2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 7.57623 eV

II  (2)

21.47746 eV

III (3)

34.83 eV   

Electron Affinity

1.30447 ± 0.00002 eV

10521.3 ± 0.2 cm-1  

Density

liquid, 1234.00 K

 9.296 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

10.500 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

10.27 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 atm

1234.93 K

ITS-90 fixed point (freezing point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

2485.00 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K

425 W/(m K)

300 K

429 W/(m K)

298.2 K

429 W/(m K)

273.2 K

429 W/(m K)

200 K

430 W/(m K)

see all 46 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

128 pm

double bond

139 pm

triple bond

137 pm

Atomic Radius

144 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

11.3 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

255.1 kJ/mol

Quantity

Silver Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 7.57623 eV

II  (2)

21.47746 eV

III (3)

34.83 eV   

Electron Affinity

1.30447 ± 0.00002 eV

10521.3 ± 0.2 cm-1  

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

25514 eV  

LI   (2s)

 3806 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

 3524 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

 3351 eV  

see all 12 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Kr] 4d10 5s1

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Orbital Filling Order

[Kr] 5s1 4d10

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Term Symbol

2S1/2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

46.0423

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

46.0423

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

17.3171

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

34.6342

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 10 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

84.7%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.831

ωL1

0.016

ωL2

0.051

ωL3

0.052

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.10 

F13

0.57 

F23

0.141

Quantity

Silver Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 1234.00 K

 9.296 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

10.500 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

107.9 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

107.8682 ± 0.0002 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

10.27 cm3/mol

Physical Form

silvery metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

18.9×10-6 K-1

283 K

18.80×10-6 K-1

85 K

13.38×10-6 K-1

75 K

12.29×10-6 K-1

65 K

10.93×10-6 K-1

57.5 K

9.66×10-6 K-1

see all 30 coefficients ...

Speed of Sound

liquid, 1150 °C, longitudinal wave

2630 m/s

solid

20 °C

longitudinal wave

3704 m/s

shear wave

1698 m/s

283 K

2730 m/s

see all 9 speeds of sound ...

Specific Gravity

68 °F, water at 4 °C (39.2 °F)

10.49

Young's Modulus

82.7 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.367

Electrical Resistivity

solid

200 K

1.029×10-8 Ohm m

273.15 K

1.467×10-8 Ohm m

293 K

1.587×10-8 Ohm m

300 K

1.629×10-8 Ohm m

400 K

2.241×10-8 Ohm m

see all 44 resistivities ...

Contact Potential

4.44 eV

Photoelectric Work Function

4.73 eV

Thermionic Work Function

3.56 eV

Mineralogical Hardness

2.5

Vickers Hardness

293 K

251 MN/m2

483 K

293 MN/m2

see all 5 hardnesses ...

Reflectivity

chemically deposited; surface polished

0.450 μm

90.5%

0.550 μm

92.7%

0.650 μm

94.7%

see all 19 reflectivities ...

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

100.7 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.00993 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

10 cm3

Quantity

Silver Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

3

less common

2

less common

1

more common

0

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 1

1.93

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity

oxidation state: 1, orbitals

1.47

Sanderson Electronegativity

oxidation state: 1

1.826

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

oxidation state: 1

1.42

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

11.05 eV

Pauling units

 1.87   

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 1

1.93

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

3.6842 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

1.45

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

4.44 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 1

1.9

Free Electron Fermi Surface Parameters

300 K

electron concentration

5.85×1022 cm-3

radius parameter

3.02

fermi wavevector

1.20×108 cm-1

fermi velocity

1.39×108 cm/s

fermi energy

5.48 eV

fermi temperature

6.36×104 K

Chemical Hardness

3.14 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

284 kJ/mol    

per atom

  2.95 eV/atom

Quantity

Silver Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 atm

1234.93 K

ITS-90 fixed point (freezing point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

2485.00 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K

425 W/(m K)

300 K

429 W/(m K)

298.2 K

429 W/(m K)

273.2 K

429 W/(m K)

200 K

430 W/(m K)

see all 46 conductivities ...

Critical Point

7480 K

Vapor Pressure

2160 °C

100 kPa

1782 °C

10 kPa

1509 °C

1 kPa

see all 16 pressures ...

Neel Point

560 pK

silver-109

700 ± 80 pK

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

11.3 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

255.1 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

25.350 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.235 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

0.64 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

227.3 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

221 K  

Quantity

Silver Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-22-4

ICSC Number

0810

RTECS Number

VW3500000

Quantity

Silver Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

144 pm

Orbital Radius

128.6 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

128 pm

double bond

139 pm

triple bond

137 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

145 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +1

coordination number: 2

 81 pm

coordination number: 4

114 pm

square planer

116 pm

coordination number: 5

123 pm

coordination number: 6

129 pm

coordination number: 7

136 pm

coordination number: 8

142 pm

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 4, square planer

 93 pm

coordination number: 6

108 pm

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 4, square planer

 81 pm

coordination number: 6

 89 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +1

coordination number: 2

 67 pm

coordination number: 4

100 pm

square planer

102 pm

coordination number: 5

109 pm

coordination number: 6

115 pm

coordination number: 7

122 pm

coordination number: 8

128 pm

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 4, square planer

 79 pm

coordination number: 6

 94 pm

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 4, square planer

 67 pm

coordination number: 6

 75 pm

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +1

126 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

126 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

2.1×102 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

237 pm

Bondi Van Der Waals Radius

172 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

160 pm

Quantity

Silver Crystal Structure

Notes

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

289 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

5.85×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Silver History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

circa 5000 BC

discoverer

unknown

location of discovery

unknown

Origin of Element Name

origin

seolfor, siolfur

origin description

word—Anglo-Saxon for silver

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Ag

origin

argentum

origin description

word—Latin for silver

U.S. Towns Named After Elements

Silver, South Carolina

Quantity

Silver Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

7.5×10-2 ppm

Earth's Mantle

4 ppb

primitive mantle

Earth's Core

0.15 ppm

Bulk Earth

0.05 ppm

Ocean Water

0.0001 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

0.18 ppm

Ridge

6.2 ppm

River Water

0.0003 ppm

U.S. Coal

<0.1 ppm

estimated from USGS and literature data

Human Body

2 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

0.01 ppm to 0.44 ppm

Human Hair

0.005 ppm to 3.8 ppm

Human Kidney

0.005 ppm to 0.26 ppm

Human Liver

0.005 ppm to 0.25 ppm

Human Muscle

0.009 ppm to 0.28 ppm

Human Nail

0.003 ppm to 1.4 ppm

Ferns

0.81 ppm

Fungi

0.18 ppm to 7 ppm

Solar System

0.486

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

0.94 ± 0.25

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

1.23 ± 0.04

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Silver Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

argent

German

Silber

Italian

argento

Spanish

plata

Portuguese

prata

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

argentide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

silver

Ligands

argentido

Heteroatomic Anion

argentate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

argenta

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

argenty

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

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