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Beryllium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Be

Atomic Number

4

Atomic Weight

Rounded

9.012

for regular calculations

Standard

9.012182 ± 0.000003

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

2

Pauling Electronegativity

1.57

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[He] 2s2

[He] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of helium

Orbital Filling Order

[He] 2s2

[He] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of helium

Term Symbol

1S0

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

  9.32270 eV

II  (2)

 18.21114 eV

III (3)

153.89661 eV

IV  (4)

217.71865 eV

Electron Affinity

<0 eV

<0 cm-1

Density

13000 K, 0.7 GPa

0.12 g/cm3 

critical point, predicted

liquid, 1556.00 K

1.690 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

1.850 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

4.85 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 bar

1560 ± 5 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

2757.00 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

161 W/(m K)

300 K, polycrystalline

200 W/(m K)

298.2 K, polycrystalline

201 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

218 W/(m K)

200 K, polycrystalline

301 W/(m K)

see all 47 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

102 pm

double bond

 90 pm

triple bond

 85 pm

Atomic Radius

112 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

9.8 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

308.8 kJ/mol

Quantity

Beryllium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

  9.32270 eV

II  (2)

 18.21114 eV

III (3)

153.89661 eV

IV  (4)

217.71865 eV

Electron Affinity

<0 eV

<0 cm-1

Electron Binding Energies

(1s)

111.5 eV

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[He] 2s2

[He] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of helium

Orbital Filling Order

[He] 2s2

[He] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of helium

Term Symbol

1S0

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

3.6848

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

3.6848

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

0.9560

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

1.912 

Zeff = ζ × n

Screening Percentage

51.3%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.0007

Quantity

Beryllium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

13000 K, 0.7 GPa

0.12 g/cm3 

critical point, predicted

liquid, 1556.00 K

1.690 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

1.850 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

9.012 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

9.012182 ± 0.000003 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

4.85 cm3/mol

Physical Form

hexagonal crystals

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

11.3×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

solid

room temperature, extensional wave

12870 m/s

20 °C

longitudinal wave

12890 m/s

shear wave

 8880 m/s

α-beryllium, solid, 293 K

13000 m/s

calculated value

Specific Gravity

68 °F, water at 4 °C (39.2 °F)

1.85

Young's Modulus

α-beryllium

318 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

α-beryllium

0.075

Electrical Resistivity

solid

200 K, polycrystalline

1.29×10-8 Ohm m

273.15 K, polycrystalline

3.02×10-8 Ohm m

293 K, polycrystalline

3.56×10-8 Ohm m

300 K, polycrystalline

3.76×10-8 Ohm m

400 K, polycrystalline

6.76×10-8 Ohm m

see all 87 resistivities ...

Contact Potential

3.10 eV

Photoelectric Work Function

3.92 eV

Superconducting Transition Temperature

beryllium films

9.6 ± 0.1 K

bulk value

0.026 K

Mineralogical Hardness

5.5

Vickers Hardness

purity - 99.9%

293 K

1670 MN/m2

673 K

1080 MN/m2

see all 5 hardnesses ...

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

100.3 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.00997 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

5 cm3

Quantity

Beryllium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

2

Pauling Electronegativity

1.57

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity

hybridsp

1.54

Sanderson Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.810

oxidation state: 1

1.56

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

1.47

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

9.323 eV

Pauling units

1.576   

Allen Electronegativity

1.576

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.57

Boyd-Edgecombe Electronegativity

1.44

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

3.7060 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

1.55

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

4.9 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.5

Free Electron Fermi Surface Parameters

300 K

electron concentration

24.2×1022 cm-3

radius parameter

1.88

fermi wavevector

1.93×108 cm-1

fermi velocity

2.23×108 cm/s

fermi energy

14.14 eV

fermi temperature

16.41×104 K

Chemical Hardness

4.5 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

320 kJ/mol    

per atom

  3.32 eV/atom

Quantity

Beryllium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 bar

1560 ± 5 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

2757.00 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

161 W/(m K)

300 K, polycrystalline

200 W/(m K)

298.2 K, polycrystalline

201 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

218 W/(m K)

200 K, polycrystalline

301 W/(m K)

see all 47 conductivities ...

Critical Point

temperature

13000 K

predicted

pressure

0.7 GPa

Vapor Pressure

2469 °C

100 kPa

2054 °C

10 kPa

1750 °C

1 kPa

1518 °C

100 Pa

1335 °C

10 Pa

1189 °C

1 Pa

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

9.8 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

308.8 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

16.443 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

1.825 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

0.171 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

1481 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

1031 K

Quantity

Beryllium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-41-7

DOT Number

powder

1567

ICSC Number

0226

RTECS Number

DS1750000

UN Number

1567

Quantity

Beryllium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

112 pm

Orbital Radius

104.0 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

102 pm

double bond

 90 pm

triple bond

 85 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

96 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 3

30 pm

coordination number: 4

41 pm

coordination number: 6

59 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 3

16 pm

coordination number: 4

27 pm

coordination number: 6

45 pm

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +2

31 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

44 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

1.9×102 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

223 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

105 pm

Quantity

Beryllium Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-beryllium

symbol

αBe

allotrope

β-beryllium

symbol

βBe

allotrope

γ-beryllium

symbol

γBe

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

222 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

12.1×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Beryllium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1798

discoverer

Nicolas-Louis Vauquelin

birth

May 16, 1763

death

November 14, 1829

location of discovery

Paris, France

Origin of Element Name

origin

beryllos

origin description

mineral—Greek for beryl

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Be

origin

beryllium

origin description

element name

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

name

glucinum

matching symbol

G

name

glucinum

matching symbol

Gl

name

glucinium

no matching symbol specified

Quantity

Beryllium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

2.8 ppm

Earth's Mantle

0.070 ppm

primitive mantle

Bulk Earth

0.05 ppm

Ocean Water

6×10-7 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

6.7 ppm

River Water

<1×10-4 ppm

U.S. Coal

2.2 ppm

Human Body

0.036 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

0.003 ppm

Human Hair

0.006 ppm to 0.02 ppm

Human Kidney

0.0002 ppm

Human Liver

0.0016 ppm

Human Muscle

0.00075 ppm

Human Nail

<0.01 ppm

Solar System

0.73

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

1.40 ± 0.09

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

1.41 ± 0.04

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Beryllium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

béryllium

German

Beryllium

Italian

berillio

Spanish

berilio

Portuguese

berílio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

beryllide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

beryllium (general)

Be+, beryllium(1+)

Be2+, beryllium(2+)

Ligands

beryllido

Heteroatomic Anion

beryllate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

berylla

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

berylly

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