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Platinum Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Pt

Atomic Number

78

Atomic Weight

Rounded

195.1

for regular calculations

Standard

195.084 ± 0.009

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

6

less common

5

less common

4

more common

2

more common with disagreement

0

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

2.28

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s1 4f14 5d9

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

3D3

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I  (1)

 8.9588 eV

II (2)

18.563 eV 

Electron Affinity

2.12510 ± 0.00005 eV

17140.1 ± 0.4 cm-1  

Density

liquid, 2073.15 K

18.745 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

21.500 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

9.09 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 atm

2041.3 K

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point (freezing point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

4149 ± 20 K

reference stated that the uncertainty may be larger than indicated

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K

71.8 W/(m K)

300 K

71.6 W/(m K)

298.2 K

71.6 W/(m K)

273.2 K

71.7 W/(m K)

200 K

72.6 W/(m K)

see all 46 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

123 pm

double bond

112 pm

triple bond

110 pm

Atomic Radius

139 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

19.7 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

510.5 kJ/mol

Quantity

Platinum Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I  (1)

 8.9588 eV

II (2)

18.563 eV 

Electron Affinity

2.12510 ± 0.00005 eV

17140.1 ± 0.4 cm-1  

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

78395 eV  

LI   (2s)

13880 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

13273 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

11564 eV  

see all 19 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s1 4f14 5d9

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

3D3

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

76.4940

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

76.4940

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

28.8149

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

57.6298

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 14 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

85.8%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.959

ωL1

0.114

ωL2

0.344

ωL3

0.303

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.075

F13

0.545

F23

0.126

Quantity

Platinum Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 2073.15 K

18.745 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

21.500 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

195.1 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

195.084 ± 0.009 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

9.09 cm3/mol

Physical Form

silvery-gray metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

8.8×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

solid

room temperature, extensional wave

2800 m/s

473 K

2460 m/s

373 K

2570 m/s

298 K

2780 m/s

20 °C

longitudinal wave

3260 m/s

shear wave

1730 m/s

288 K to 293 K, annealed

2680 m/s

Specific Gravity

68 °F, water at 4 °C (39.2 °F)

21.45

Young's Modulus

172.4 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.397

Electrical Resistivity

solid

200 K

6.9169×10-8 Ohm m

273 K

9.82×10-8 Ohm m

300 K

10.871×10-8 Ohm m

400 K

14.712×10-8 Ohm m

see all 27 resistivities ...

Contact Potential

5.36 eV

Photoelectric Work Function

5.22 eV

Thermionic Work Function

5.32 eV

Mineralogical Hardness

3.50

Vickers Hardness

annealed at 1573 K for 3 hr, purity - 99.99%

293 K

549 MN/m2

673 K

500 MN/m2

see all 6 hardnesses ...

Reflectivity

surface polished electrolytically

0.450 μm

54.7%

0.550 μm

61.1%

0.650 μm

66.5%

see all 19 reflectivities ...

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

278.3 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.00359 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

9 cm3

Quantity

Platinum Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

6

less common

5

less common

4

more common

2

more common with disagreement

0

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

2.28

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

1.44

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

10.16 eV

Pauling units

 1.72   

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

2.28

Nagle Electronegativity

1.49

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

5.6 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

2.35

oxidation state: 2

2.25

Chemical Hardness

3.5 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

564 kJ/mol    

per atom

  5.84 eV/atom

Quantity

Platinum Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 atm

2041.3 K

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point (freezing point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

4149 ± 20 K

reference stated that the uncertainty may be larger than indicated

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K

71.8 W/(m K)

300 K

71.6 W/(m K)

298.2 K

71.6 W/(m K)

273.2 K

71.7 W/(m K)

200 K

72.6 W/(m K)

see all 46 conductivities ...

Critical Point

8450 K

Vapor Pressure

4149 K

1 atm

4146 K

1 bar

3580 K

1×10-1 bar

3155 K

1×10-2 bar

2041.3 K

1.896×10-7 bar

melting point

see all 19 pressures ...

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

19.7 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

510.5 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

25.86 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.133 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

6.54 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

237 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

225 K

Quantity

Platinum Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-06-4

ICSC Number

powder

1393

RTECS Number

TP2160000

Quantity

Platinum Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

139 pm

Orbital Radius

122.1 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

123 pm

double bond

112 pm

triple bond

110 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

136 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 4, square planer

74 pm  

coordination number: 6

94 pm  

ion charge: +4, coordination number: 6

76.5 pm

ion charge: +5, coordination number: 6

71 pm  

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 4, square planer

60 pm  

coordination number: 6

80 pm  

ion charge: +4, coordination number: 6

62.5 pm

ion charge: +5, coordination number: 6

57 pm  

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

205 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

237 pm

Bondi Van Der Waals Radius

1.7×102 pm to 1.8×102 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

135 pm

Quantity

Platinum Crystal Structure

Notes

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

277 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

6.62×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Platinum History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

pre 1700

discoverer

unknown

location of discovery

Central America

Origin of Element Name

origin

platina

origin description

color—Spanish for little silver

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Pt

origin

platinum

origin description

element name

U.S. Towns Named After Elements

Platinum, Alaska

Quantity

Platinum Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

5×10-3 ppm

Earth's Mantle

6.6 ppb

primitive mantle

Earth's Core

5.7 ppm

Bulk Earth

1.9 ppm

U.S. Coal

<0.001 ppm

estimated from USGS and literature data

Solar System

1.34

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

1.8 ± 0.3

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

1.68 ± 0.04

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Platinum Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

platine

German

Platin

Italian

platino

Spanish

platino

Portuguese

platina

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

platinide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

platinum (general)

Pt2+, platinum(2+)

Pt4+, platinum(4+)

Ligands

platinido

Heteroatomic Anion

platinate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

platina

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

platiny

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

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