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Scandium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Sc

Atomic Number

21

Atomic Weight

Rounded

44.96

for regular calculations

Standard

44.955912 ± 0.000006

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

3

more common

2

less common

1

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.36

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ar] 3d1 4s2

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ar] 4s2 3d1

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Term Symbol

2D3/2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 6.56149 eV          

II  (2)

12.79977 eV          

III (3)

24.75685 ± 0.00002 eV

IV  (4)

73.4900 ± 0.0004 eV  

see all 21 energies ...

Electron Affinity

0.188 ± 0.020 eV

 1520 ± 160 cm-1

Density

liquid, 1814.15 K

2.800 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

2.990 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

15.00 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1814.15 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

3109.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

300 K, polycrystalline

15.8 W/(m K)

298.2 K, polycrystalline

15.8 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

15.7 W/(m K)

200 K, polycrystalline

15.3 W/(m K)

see all 28 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

148 pm

double bond

116 pm

triple bond

114 pm

Atomic Radius

164 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

15.9 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

304.8 kJ/mol

Quantity

Scandium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 6.56149 eV          

II  (2)

12.79977 eV          

III (3)

24.75685 ± 0.00002 eV

IV  (4)

73.4900 ± 0.0004 eV  

see all 21 energies ...

Electron Affinity

0.188 ± 0.020 eV

 1520 ± 160 cm-1

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

4492 eV  

LI   (2s)

 498.0 eV

LII  (2p1/2)

 403.6 eV

LIII (2p3/2)

 398.7 eV

see all 7 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ar] 3d1 4s2

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ar] 4s2 3d1

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Term Symbol

2D3/2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

20.4566

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

20.4566

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

 7.2868

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

14.574 

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 7 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

84.0%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.196  

ωL1

0.00039

ωL2

0.00084

ωL3

0.00084

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.31

F13

0.60

Quantity

Scandium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 1814.15 K

2.800 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

2.990 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

44.96 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

44.955912 ± 0.000006 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

15.00 cm3/mol

Physical Form

silvery metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

10.2×10-6 K-1

Young's Modulus

α-scandium

74.4 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

α-scandium

0.279

Electrical Resistivity

solid, 295 K

46.8×10-8 Ohm m

Superconducting Transition Temperature

107 GPa

19.6 K 

maximum temperature

111 GPa

 8.31 K

74.2 GPa

 8.2 K 

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

43.5 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.0230 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

15 cm3

Quantity

Scandium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

3

more common

2

less common

1

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.36

Sanderson Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.02

oxidation state: 2

0.64

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.20

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

7.042 eV

Pauling units

1.19    

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.36

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

2.8571 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

1.17

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

3.34 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.3

Chemical Hardness

3.20 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

376 kJ/mol    

per atom

  3.90 eV/atom

Quantity

Scandium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1814.15 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

3109.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

300 K, polycrystalline

15.8 W/(m K)

298.2 K, polycrystalline

15.8 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

15.7 W/(m K)

200 K, polycrystalline

15.3 W/(m K)

see all 28 conductivities ...

Critical Point

5400 K

Vapor Pressure

2828 °C

100 kPa

2340 °C

10 kPa

1993 °C

1 kPa

1733 °C

100 Pa

1531 °C

10 Pa

1372 °C

1 Pa

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

15.9 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

304.8 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

25.52 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.568 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

10.34 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

346 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

476 K

Quantity

Scandium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-20-2

Quantity

Scandium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

164 pm

Orbital Radius

157.0 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

148 pm

double bond

116 pm

triple bond

114 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

170 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 6

 88.5 pm

coordination number: 8

101.0 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 6

74.5 pm

coordination number: 8

87.0 pm

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

81 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

106 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

2.3×102 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

262 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

160 pm

Quantity

Scandium Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-scandium

symbol

αSc

allotrope

β-scandium

symbol

βSc

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

325 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

4.27×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Scandium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1879

discoverer

Lars Fredrik Nilson

birth

May 27, 1840

death

May 14, 1899

location of discovery

Uppsala, Sweden

Origin of Element Name

origin

Scandia

origin description

place—Latin for Scandinavia

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Sc

origin

scandium

origin description

element name

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

name

ekaboron

matching symbol

Eb

name

eka-bore

no matching symbol specified

Quantity

Scandium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

2.2×101 ppm

Earth's Mantle

16.5 ppm

primitive mantle

Bulk Earth

10.9 ppm

Ocean Water

1.5×10-6 ppm

River Water

4×10-6 ppm

U.S. Coal

4.2 ppm

Human Body

0.2 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

0.001 ppm to 6 ppm

Human Hair

<0.003 ppm

Human Liver

0.0004 ppm to 0.0014 ppm

Ferns

0.13 ppm

Solar System

34.2

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

3.17 ± 0.10

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

3.09 ± 0.01

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Scandium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

scandium

German

Scandium

Italian

scandio

Spanish

escandio

Portuguese

escândio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

scandide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

scandium

Ligands

scandido

Heteroatomic Anion

scandate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

scanda

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

scandy

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