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Allotropes Navigation

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By Symbol

By Number

Element

Allotropes

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Oxygen

allotrope

α-oxygen

symbol

α-O2

allotrope

β-oxygen

symbol

β-O2

allotrope

γ-oxygen

symbol

γ-O2

allotrope

orange oxygen

alternate name

δ-oxygen

symbol

δ-O2

allotrope

red oxygen

alternate name

ε-oxygen

symbol

ε-O2

allotrope

metallic oxygen

alternate name

ζ-oxygen

symbol

ζ-O2

allotrope

molecular oxygen

alternate name

oxygen

alternate name

dioxygen

symbol

O2

allotrope

ozone

alternate name

trioxygen

symbol

O3

Phosphorus

allotrope

diphosphorus

symbol

P2

allotrope category

black phosphorus

allotrope

amorphous black phosphorus

allotrope

orthorhombic black phosphorus

allotrope

rhombohedral black phosphorus

allotrope

cubic black phosphorus

allotrope category

white phosphorus

alternate category name

yellow phosphorus

allotrope

cubic white phosphorus

alternate name

α-white phosphorus

allotrope

hexagonal white phosphorus

alternate name

β-white phosphorus

allotrope category

red phosphorus

allotrope

amorphous red phosphorus

allotrope

tetragonal red phosphorus

allotrope

triclinic red phosphorus

allotrope

cubic red phosphorus

allotrope

violet phosphorus

alternate name

Hittorf’s phosphorus

alternate name

monoclinic phosphorus

allotrope

brown phosphorus

allotrope

scarlet phosphorus

allotrope

vitreous grey phosphorus

allotrope

dark red phosphorus

Plutonium

allotrope

α-plutonium

symbol

αPu

allotrope

β-plutonium

symbol

βPu

allotrope

γ-plutonium

symbol

γPu

allotrope

δ-plutonium

symbol

δPu

allotrope

δ'-plutonium

symbol

δ'Pu

allotrope

ε-plutonium

symbol

εPu

Polonium

allotrope

α-polonium

symbol

αPo

allotrope

β-polonium

symbol

βPo

Praseodymium

allotrope

α-praseodymium

symbol

αPr

allotrope

β-praseodymium

symbol

βPr

allotrope

γ-praseodymium

symbol

γPr

Promethium

allotrope

α-promethium

symbol

αPm

allotrope

β-promethium

symbol

βPm

Protactinium

allotrope

α-protactinium

symbol

αPa

allotrope

β-protactinium

symbol

βPa

Rubidium

allotrope

α-rubidium

symbol

αRb

allotrope

β-rubidium

symbol

βRb

allotrope

γ-rubidium

symbol

γRb

Samarium

allotrope

α-samarium

symbol

αSm

allotrope

β-samarium

symbol

βSm

allotrope

γ-samarium

symbol

γSm

alternate symbol

γ'Sm

Scandium

allotrope

α-scandium

symbol

αSc

allotrope

β-scandium

symbol

βSc

Selenium

allotrope

gray selenium

alternate name

grey selenium

alternate name

metallic selenium

alternate name

trigonal selenium

alternate name

hexagonal selenium

alternate name

normal selenium

alternate name

α-selenium

alternate name

γ-selenium

allotrope

α-monoclinic selenium

symbol

α-Se8

allotrope

β-monoclinic selenium

symbol

β-Se8

allotrope

γ-monoclinic selenium

symbol

γ-Se8

allotrope category

cubic selenium

allotrope

α-cubic selenium

allotrope

β-cubic selenium

allotrope

rhombohedral selenium

alternate name

cyclo-Se6

symbol

r-Se

allotrope

orthorhombic selenium

alternate name

cyclo-Se7

symbol

o-Se

allotrope category

amorphous selenium

allotrope

red amorphous selenium

allotrope

brown amorphous selenium

allotrope

black amorphous selenium

allotrope

vitreous selenium

Silicon

allotrope

α-silicon

symbol

αSi

allotrope

β-silicon

symbol

βSi

allotrope

γ-silicon

symbol

γSi

allotrope

δ-silicon

symbol

δSi

Sodium

allotrope

α-sodium

symbol

αNa

allotrope

β-sodium

symbol

βNa

Strontium

allotrope

α-strontium

symbol

αSr

allotrope

β-strontium

symbol

βSr

allotrope

β'-strontium

symbol

β'Sr

alternate symbol

Sr-II

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

Connelly, Neil G., Ture Damhus, Richard M. Hartshorn, and Alan T. Hutton. Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry: IUPAC Recommendations 2005. Cambridge: RSC Publishing, 2005.

Donohue, Jerry. The Structures Of The Elements, 2nd edition. Malabar, Florida: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company, 1974.

Ebbing, Darrell D., and Steven D. Gammon. General Chemistry, 8th edition. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005.

Farrell, Alexander E. "Learning to See the Invisible: Discovery and Measurement of Ozone." Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, volume 106, number 1-3, 2005, pp. 59–80. doi:10.1007/s10661-005-0762-1

Filyand, M. A., and E. I. Semenova. Handbook of the Rare Elements: Radioactive Elements and Rare Earth Elements, volume 3. Translated by Michael E. Alferieff. London: Oldbourne Book Co. Ltd., 1970.

Freiman, Yu. A., and H. J. Jodl. "Solid oxygen." Physics Reports, volume 401, number 1-4, 2004, pp. 1–228. doi:10.1016/j.physrep.2004.06.002

Greenwood, N. N., and A. Earnshaw. Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997.

Herchenroeder, J. W., and K. A. Gschneidner. "Stable, Metastable and Nonexistent Allotropes." Journal of Phase Equilibria, volume 9, number 1, 1988, pp. 2–12. doi:10.1007/BF02877443

King, H. W. "Pressure-Dependent Allotropic Structures of the Elements." Bulletin of Alloy Phase Diagrams, volume 4, number 4, 1983, pp. 449–450. doi:10.1007/BF02868110

King, H. W. "Temperature-Dependent Allotropic Structures of the Elements." Bulletin of Alloy Phase Diagrams, volume 3, number 2, 1982, pp. 275–276. doi:10.1007/BF02892394

Li, Wai-Kee, Gong-Du Zhou, and Thomas Mak. Advanced Structural Inorganic Chemistry. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Lide, David R., editor. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 88th edition. Boca Raton, Florida: Taylor & Francis Group, 2008.

Lundegaardo, Lars F., Gunnar Weck, Malcolm I. McMahon, Serge Desgreniers, and Paul Loubeyre. "Observation of an O8 Molecular Lattice in the ε Phase of Solid Oxygen." Nature, volume 443, number 7108, 2006, pp. 201–204. doi:10.1038/nature05174

Madelung, O., U. Rössler, and M. Schulz, editors. Non-Tetrahedrally Bonded Elements and Binary Compounds I. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1998. doi:10.1007/b71138

Minaev, V. S., S. P. Timoshenkov, and V. V. Kalugin. "Structural and Phase Transformations in Condensed Selenium." Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, volume 7, number 4, 2005, pp. 1717–1741.

Scientific Group Thermodata Europe (SGTE). Pure Substances: Part 1—Elements and Compounds from AgBr to Ba3N2. Edited by I. Hurtado and D. Neuschütz. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1999. doi:10.1007/10652891_3

Takumi, Masaharu, and Kiyofumi Nagata. "Pressure-Induced Phase Transitions of Trigonal, Rhombohedral, Orthorhombic, and α-Monoclinic Selenium." Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, volume 76, number Supplement A, 2007, pp. 17–18.