Phosphorus

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Phosphorus Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

P

Atomic Number

15

Atomic Weight

Rounded

30.97

for regular calculations

Standard

30.973762 ± 0.000002

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

 5

more common

 4

less common

 3

more common with disagreement

 2

less common

 1

less common

 0

less common

-1

less common

-2

less common

-3

more common with disagreement

Pauling Electronegativity

2.19

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ne] 3s2 3p3

[Ne] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of neon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ne] 3s2 3p3

[Ne] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of neon

Term Symbol

4S3/2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

10.48669 eV          

II  (2)

19.7695 eV           

III (3)

30.20288 ± 0.00012 eV

IV  (4)

51.4443 ± 0.0002 eV  

see all 15 energies ...

Electron Affinity

0.7465 ± 0.0003 eV

  6021 ± 3 cm-1   

Density

black phosphorus, solid, 25 °C

2.690 g/cm3

white phosphorus

liquid, 317.55 K

1.745 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

1.823 g/cm3

red phosphorus

liquid, 853.15 K

1.156 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

2.160 g/cm3

Molar Volume

black phosphorus, solid, 298 K, 1 atm

11.44 cm3/mol

white phosphorus, solid, 298 K, 1 atm

17.02 cm3/mol

Melting Point

cubic white phosphorus

44.1 °C 

ultrapure

44.25 °C

Boiling Point

white phosphorus, 1 atm

553.65 K

Thermal Conductivity

black phosphorus, solid

300 K, polycrystalline

12.1 W/(m K)  

298.2 K, polycrystalline

12.1 W/(m K)  

273.2 K, polycrystalline

13.2 W/(m K)  

white phosphorus

liquid

500 K

 0.167 W/(m K)

extrapolated

400 K

 0.178 W/(m K)

extrapolated

solid

300 K

 0.235 W/(m K)

298.2 K

 0.236 W/(m K)

extrapolated

273.2 K

 0.250 W/(m K)

extrapolated

see all 46 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

111 pm

double bond

102 pm

triple bond

 94 pm

Atomic Radius

110 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

2.51 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

51.9 kJ/mol

Quantity

Phosphorus Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

10.48669 eV          

II  (2)

19.7695 eV           

III (3)

30.20288 ± 0.00012 eV

IV  (4)

51.4443 ± 0.0002 eV  

see all 15 energies ...

Electron Affinity

0.7465 ± 0.0003 eV

  6021 ± 3 cm-1   

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

2145.5 eV

LI   (2s)

 189 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

 136 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

 135 eV  

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ne] 3s2 3p3

[Ne] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of neon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ne] 3s2 3p3

[Ne] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of neon

Term Symbol

4S3/2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

14.5578

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

14.5578

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

 4.9125

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

 9.8250

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 5 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

68.0%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.064   

ωL1

0.000039

ωL2

0.00031 

ωL3

0.00031 

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.32

F13

0.63

Quantity

Phosphorus Physical Properties

Notes

Density

black phosphorus, solid, 25 °C

2.690 g/cm3

white phosphorus

liquid, 317.55 K

1.745 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

1.823 g/cm3

red phosphorus

liquid, 853.15 K

1.156 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

2.160 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

30.97 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

30.973762 ± 0.000002 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

black phosphorus, solid, 298 K, 1 atm

11.44 cm3/mol

white phosphorus, solid, 298 K, 1 atm

17.02 cm3/mol

Physical Form

black phosphorus

black orthorhombic crystals

white phosphorus

colorless waxlike cubic crystals

red phosphorus

red-violet amorphous powder

Specific Gravity

white phosphorus, 68 °F, water at 4 °C (39.2 °F)

1.82

Young's Modulus

30.4 GPa

P4

Dielectric Constant

307.2 K

4.10

93 °F

4.1 

black phosphorus

6.1 

white phosphorus

108 Hz

3.6 

20 °C

4.1 

red phosphorus, 108 Hz

4.1 

Superconducting Transition Temperature

black phosphorus

32 GPa

9.5 K

maximum temperature

100 GPa

4.3 K

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

black phosphorus, 300 K

30.4 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

black phosphorus, 300 K

0.0329 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

17 cm3

Quantity

Phosphorus Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

 5

more common

 4

less common

 3

more common with disagreement

 2

less common

 1

less common

 0

less common

-1

less common

-2

less common

-3

more common with disagreement

Pauling Electronegativity

2.19

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity

hybridsp3

2.41

hybrid20% s

2.30

orbitalp

1.84

Sanderson Electronegativity

2.515

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

2.06

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

13.33 eV

Pauling units

 2.253  

Allen Electronegativity

2.253

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

2.19

Boyd-Edgecombe Electronegativity

2.17

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

6.3405 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

2.22

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

5.62 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 5

2.05

oxidation state: 3

2.0

Chemical Hardness

4.88 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

331 kJ/mol    

per atom

  3.43 eV/atom

Quantity

Phosphorus Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

cubic white phosphorus

44.1 °C 

ultrapure

44.25 °C

Boiling Point

white phosphorus, 1 atm

553.65 K

Thermal Conductivity

black phosphorus, solid

300 K, polycrystalline

12.1 W/(m K)  

298.2 K, polycrystalline

12.1 W/(m K)  

273.2 K, polycrystalline

13.2 W/(m K)  

white phosphorus

liquid

500 K

 0.167 W/(m K)

extrapolated

400 K

 0.178 W/(m K)

extrapolated

solid

300 K

 0.235 W/(m K)

298.2 K

 0.236 W/(m K)

extrapolated

273.2 K

 0.250 W/(m K)

extrapolated

see all 46 conductivities ...

Critical Point

994.0 K

Vapor Pressure

white phosphorus

276 °C

100 kPa

115 °C

1 kPa

red phosphorus

431 °C

100 kPa

303 °C

1 kPa

violet phosphorus

417 °C

760 mmHg

391 °C

400 mmHg

349 °C

100 mmHg

323 °C

40 mmHg

287 °C

10 mmHg

237 °C

1 mmHg

see all 32 pressures ...

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

2.51 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

51.9 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

white phosphorus, 298.15 K, 1 bar

23.824 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

white phosphorus, 298.15 K, 1 bar

0.769 J/(g K)

Debye Temperature

white phosphorus, Room Temperature ( 298 K )

576 K

Quantity

Phosphorus Identification

Notes

CAS Number

black phosphorus

7723-14-0

white phosphorus

7723-14-0

red phosphorus

7723-14-0

DOT Number

amorphous

1338

amorphous, red

1338

white, dry or under water or in solution

1381

white, molten

2447

yellow, dry or under water or in solution

1381

ICSC Number

white phosphorus

0628

RTECS Number

white phosphorus

TH3500000

UN Number

white phosphorus

1381

Quantity

Phosphorus Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

110 pm

Orbital Radius

91.9 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

111 pm

double bond

102 pm

triple bond

 94 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

107 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6

58 pm

ion charge: +5

coordination number: 4

31 pm

coordination number: 5

43 pm

coordination number: 6

52 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6

44 pm

ion charge: +5

coordination number: 4

17 pm

coordination number: 5

29 pm

coordination number: 6

38 pm

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +5

 34 pm

ion charge: -3

212 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

 59 pm

ion charge: -1

279 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

195 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

214 pm

Bondi Van Der Waals Radius

180 pm

Pauling Van Der Waals Radius

1.9×102 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

100 pm

Quantity

Phosphorus Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

diphosphorus

symbol

P2

allotrope category

black phosphorus

allotrope

amorphous black phosphorus

allotrope

orthorhombic black phosphorus

allotrope

rhombohedral black phosphorus

allotrope

cubic black phosphorus

allotrope category

white phosphorus

alternate category name

yellow phosphorus

allotrope

cubic white phosphorus

alternate name

α-white phosphorus

allotrope

hexagonal white phosphorus

alternate name

β-white phosphorus

allotrope category

red phosphorus

allotrope

amorphous red phosphorus

allotrope

tetragonal red phosphorus

allotrope

triclinic red phosphorus

allotrope

cubic red phosphorus

allotrope

violet phosphorus

alternate name

Hittorf’s phosphorus

alternate name

monoclinic phosphorus

allotrope

brown phosphorus

allotrope

scarlet phosphorus

allotrope

vitreous grey phosphorus

allotrope

dark red phosphorus

Quantity

Phosphorus History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1669

discoverer

Hennig Brand

location of discovery

Hamburg, Germany

Origin of Element Name

origin

phos phero

origin description

property—Greek for light bearing

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: P

origin

phosphorus

origin description

element name

Quantity

Phosphorus Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

1.05×103 ppm

Earth's Mantle

86 ppm

primitive mantle

Earth's Core

0.20%

Bulk Earth

715 ppm

Ocean Water

0.07 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Ridge

9000 ppm

River Water

0.02 ppm

U.S. Coal

430 ppm

Human Body

780 g

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

62 ppm to 71×103 ppm

Human Hair

83 ppm to 165 ppm

Human Kidney

7×103 ppm

Human Liver

9.4×103 ppm

Human Muscle

3 ppm to 8.5×103 ppm

Human Nail

180 ppm to 990 ppm

Bacteria

30×103 ppm

Ferns

2×103 ppm

Fungi

5×103 ppm

Solar System

1.04×104

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

5.43 ± 0.05

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

5.52 ± 0.04

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Phosphorus Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

phosphore

German

Phosphor

Italian

fosforo

Spanish

fósforo

Portuguese

fósforo

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

phosphide (general)

P-, phosphide(1-)

P3-, phosphide(3-), phosphanetriide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

phosphorus (general)

P+, phosphorus(1+)

Ligands

P3-, phosphido, phosphanetriido

Heteroatomic Anion

phosphate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

phospha

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

phosphy

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

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