Polonium

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Polonium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Po

Atomic Number

84

Oxidation States

 6

less common

 4

more common

 2

less common with disagreement

-2

less common with disagreement

Pauling Electronegativity

2.0

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p4

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

3P2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I (1)

8.414 eV

Electron Affinity

  1.9 ± 0.3 eV   

15300 ± 2400 cm-1

Density

liquid, 527.15 K

8.630 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

9.200 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

22.97 cm3/mol

Melting Point

527.15 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

1235.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid, 300 K

20 W/(m K)

calculated provisional value

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

145 pm

double bond

135 pm

triple bond

129 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

10 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

100.8 kJ/mol

Quantity

Polonium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I (1)

8.414 eV

Electron Affinity

  1.9 ± 0.3 eV   

15300 ± 2400 cm-1

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

93105 eV

LI   (2s)

16939 eV

LII  (2p1/2)

16244 eV

LIII (2p3/2)

13814 eV

see all 21 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p4

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

3P2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

82.3768

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

82.3768

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

30.9609

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

61.9218

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 15 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

82.4%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.965

ωL1

0.135

ωL2

0.424

ωL3

0.363

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.060

F13

0.62 

F23

0.115

Quantity

Polonium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 527.15 K

8.630 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

9.200 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

22.97 cm3/mol

Physical Form

silvery metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

23.5×10-6 K-1

Young's Modulus

26 GPa

Electrical Resistivity

solid, 295 K

46×10-8 Ohm m

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

26 GPa

estimated

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.038 GPa-1

estimated

Quantity

Polonium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

 6

less common

 4

more common

 2

less common with disagreement

-2

less common with disagreement

Pauling Electronegativity

2.0

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity

hybrid16.7% s

2.48

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

1.76

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

13.0 eV

Pauling units

 2.19  

Nagle Electronegativity

1.96

Cohesive Energy

per mole

144 kJ/mol    

per atom

  1.50 eV/atom

Quantity

Polonium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

527.15 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

1235.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid, 300 K

20 W/(m K)

calculated provisional value

Critical Point

2880 K

Vapor Pressure

963.3 °C

100 kPa

730.2 °C

10 kPa

573 °C

1 kPa

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

10 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

100.8 kJ/mol

Quantity

Polonium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-08-6

Quantity

Polonium Atomic Size

Notes

Orbital Radius

121.2 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

145 pm

double bond

135 pm

triple bond

129 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

140 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 6

108 pm

coordination number: 8

122 pm

ion charge: +6, coordination number: 6

 81 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 6

 94 pm

coordination number: 8

108 pm

ion charge: +6, coordination number: 6

 67 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

190 pm

Quantity

Polonium Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-polonium

symbol

αPo

allotrope

β-polonium

symbol

βPo

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

334 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

2.67×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Polonium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1898

discoverer

Marie Sklodowska Curie

birth

November 7, 1867

death

July 4, 1934

location of discovery

Paris, France

Origin of Element Name

origin

Poland

origin description

place

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Po

origin

polonium

origin description

element name

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

name

radium F

no matching symbol specified

Quantity

Polonium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

2×10-10 ppm

Ocean Water

2×10-14 ppm

Quantity

Polonium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

polonium

German

Polonium

Italian

polonio

Spanish

polonio

Portuguese

polónio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

polonide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

polonium

Ligands

polonido

Heteroatomic Anion

polonate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

polona

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

polony

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