Promethium

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Promethium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Pm

Atomic Number

61

Oxidation States

3

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f5 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f5

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

6H5/2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 5.582 eV    

II  (2)

10.90 eV     

III (3)

22.3 ± 0.4 eV

IV  (4)

41.1 ± 0.6 eV

Density

liquid, 1315.15 K

6.900 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

7.260 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

20.23 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1253 ± 10 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

3273.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

18.4 W/(m K)

estimated

373.2 K, polycrystalline

18.4 W/(m K)

estimated

350 K, polycrystalline

18.2 W/(m K)

estimated

323.2 K, polycrystalline

18.1 W/(m K)

estimated

300 K, polycrystalline

17.9 W/(m K)

estimated

see all 43 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

173 pm

double bond

135 pm

Atomic Radius

181 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

12.6 kJ/mol

Quantity

Promethium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 5.582 eV    

II  (2)

10.90 eV     

III (3)

22.3 ± 0.4 eV

IV  (4)

41.1 ± 0.6 eV

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

45184 eV

LI   (2s)

 7428 eV

LII  (2p1/2)

 7013 eV

LIII (2p3/2)

 6459 eV

see all 12 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f5 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f5

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

6H5/2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

59.7958

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

59.7958

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

22.4852

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

44.9704

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 13 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

92.7%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.922

ωL1

0.066

ωL2

0.145

ωL3

0.142

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.19 

F13

0.25 

F23

0.156

Quantity

Promethium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 1315.15 K

6.900 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

7.260 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

20.23 cm3/mol

Physical Form

silvery metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

11×10-6 K-1

estimated

Young's Modulus

α-promethium

46.0 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

α-promethium

0.280

Electrical Resistivity

solid, 273 K

50×10-8 Ohm m

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

35 GPa

estimated

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.0285 GPa-1

estimated

Quantity

Promethium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

3

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

1.07

Nagle Electronegativity

1.04

Quantity

Promethium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1253 ± 10 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

3273.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

18.4 W/(m K)

estimated

373.2 K, polycrystalline

18.4 W/(m K)

estimated

350 K, polycrystalline

18.2 W/(m K)

estimated

323.2 K, polycrystalline

18.1 W/(m K)

estimated

300 K, polycrystalline

17.9 W/(m K)

estimated

see all 43 conductivities ...

Critical Point

6800 K

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

12.6 kJ/mol

Quantity

Promethium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-12-2

Quantity

Promethium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

181 pm

Orbital Radius

188.2 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

173 pm

double bond

135 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

199 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 6

111 pm  

coordination number: 8

123.3 pm

coordination number: 9

128.4 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 6

 97 pm  

coordination number: 8

109.3 pm

coordination number: 9

114.4 pm

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

106 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

185 pm

Quantity

Promethium Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-promethium

symbol

αPm

allotrope

β-promethium

symbol

βPm

Quantity

Promethium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1945

discoverer

Jakob Akiba Marinsky

birth

1918

discoverer

Lawrence Elgin Glendenin

birth

1918

discoverer

Charles Dubois Coryell

birth

1912

death

1971

location of discovery

Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Origin of Element Name

origin

Prometheus

origin description

mythical—He stole fire from the gods in Greek mythology

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Pm

origin

promethium

origin description

element name

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

name

prometheum

matching symbol

Pm

name

cyclonium

matching symbol

Cy

name

illinium

matching symbol

Il

name

florentium

no matching symbol specified

Quantity

Promethium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

prométhium

German

Promethium

Italian

prometo

Spanish

prometio

Portuguese

promécio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

promethide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

promethium

Ligands

promethido

Heteroatomic Anion

promethate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

prometha

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

promethy

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