Rubidium

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Rubidium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Rb

Atomic Number

37

Atomic Weight

Rounded

85.47

for regular calculations

Standard

85.4678 ± 0.0003

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

 1

more common

-1

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

0.82

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Kr] 5s1

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Orbital Filling Order

[Kr] 5s1

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Term Symbol

2S1/2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 4.177128 ± 0.000001 eV

II  (2)

27.2898 ± 0.0001 eV    

III (3)

39.0 ± 0.3 eV          

IV  (4)

52.2 ± 0.2 eV          

see all 37 energies ...

Electron Affinity

0.485916 ± 0.000020 eV

 3919.18 ± 0.15 cm-1  

Density

liquid, 312.46 K

1.482 g/ml 

solid

25 °C

1.530 g/cm3

293 K

1.532 g/cm3

5 K

1.629 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

55.76 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 bar

312.65 ± 0.1 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

961.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

liquid, 400 K

31.8 W/(m K)

solid

300 K

58.2 W/(m K)

298.2 K

58.2 W/(m K)

273.2 K

58.3 W/(m K)

extrapolated, interpolated, or estimated

200 K

58.9 W/(m K)

extrapolated, interpolated, or estimated

see all 45 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

210 pm

double bond

202 pm

Atomic Radius

250 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

2.2 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

69.2 kJ/mol

Quantity

Rubidium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 4.177128 ± 0.000001 eV

II  (2)

27.2898 ± 0.0001 eV    

III (3)

39.0 ± 0.3 eV          

IV  (4)

52.2 ± 0.2 eV          

see all 37 energies ...

Electron Affinity

0.485916 ± 0.000020 eV

 3919.18 ± 0.15 cm-1  

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

15200 eV  

LI   (2s)

 2065 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

 1864 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

 1804 eV  

see all 12 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Kr] 5s1

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Orbital Filling Order

[Kr] 5s1

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Term Symbol

2S1/2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

36.2078

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

36.2078

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

13.5784

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

27.1568

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 9 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

94.0%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.674 

ωL1

0.0046

ωL2

0.022 

ωL3

0.024 

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.27

F13

0.52

F23

0.08

Quantity

Rubidium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 312.46 K

1.482 g/ml 

solid

25 °C

1.530 g/cm3

293 K

1.532 g/cm3

5 K

1.629 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

85.47 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

85.4678 ± 0.0003 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

55.76 cm3/mol

Physical Form

soft silvery metal

Speed of Sound

liquid, 50 °C, longitudinal wave

1427 m/s

solid

1300 m/s

Young's Modulus

2.35 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.300

Electrical Resistivity

solid

200 K

7.49×10-8 Ohm m

273.15 K

11.54×10-8 Ohm m

293 K

12.84×10-8 Ohm m

300 K

13.32×10-8 Ohm m

liquid, 400 K

29.51×10-8 Ohm m

see all 55 resistivities ...

Photoelectric Work Function

2.09 eV

Mineralogical Hardness

0.3

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

3.1 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.32 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

56 cm3

Quantity

Rubidium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

 1

more common

-1

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

0.82

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity

orbitals

0.69

Sanderson Electronegativity

0.312

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

0.89

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

4.177 eV

Pauling units

0.706   

Allen Electronegativity

0.706

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 1

0.82

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

2.0135 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

0.83

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

2.34 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 1

0.8

Free Electron Fermi Surface Parameters

5 K

electron concentration

1.15×1022 cm-3

radius parameter

5.20

fermi wavevector

0.70×108 cm-1

fermi velocity

0.81×108 cm/s

fermi energy

1.85 eV

fermi temperature

2.15×104 K

Chemical Hardness

1.85 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

82.2 kJ/mol   

per atom

 0.852 eV/atom

Quantity

Rubidium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 bar

312.65 ± 0.1 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

961.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

liquid, 400 K

31.8 W/(m K)

solid

300 K

58.2 W/(m K)

298.2 K

58.2 W/(m K)

273.2 K

58.3 W/(m K)

extrapolated, interpolated, or estimated

200 K

58.9 W/(m K)

extrapolated, interpolated, or estimated

see all 45 conductivities ...

Triple Point

312.41

Critical Point

2093 K

Vapor Pressure

685.3 °C

100 kPa

496.1 °C

10 kPa

368 °C

1 kPa

see all 16 pressures ...

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

2.2 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

69.2 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

31.060 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.363 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

2.63 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

56.5 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

59 K  

Quantity

Rubidium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-17-7

DOT Number

1423

metal

1423

Quantity

Rubidium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

250 pm

Orbital Radius

228.7 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

210 pm

double bond

202 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

220 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +1

coordination number: 6

166 pm

coordination number: 7

170 pm

coordination number: 8

175 pm

coordination number: 9

177 pm

coordination number: 10

180 pm

coordination number: 11

183 pm

coordination number: 12

186 pm

coordination number: 14

197 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +1

coordination number: 6

152 pm

coordination number: 7

156 pm

coordination number: 8

161 pm

coordination number: 9

163 pm

coordination number: 10

166 pm

coordination number: 11

169 pm

coordination number: 12

172 pm

coordination number: 14

183 pm

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +1

148 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

148 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

2.9×102 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

315 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

235 pm

Quantity

Rubidium Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-rubidium

symbol

αRb

allotrope

β-rubidium

symbol

βRb

allotrope

γ-rubidium

symbol

γRb

Nearest Neighbor Distance

5 K, 1 atm

483.7 pm

Atomic Concentration

5 K, 1 atm

1.148×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Rubidium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1861

discoverer

Robert Wilhelm Bunsen

birth

March 31, 1811

death

August 16, 1899

discoverer

Gustav Robert Kirchhoff

birth

March 12, 1824

death

October 17, 1887

location of discovery

Heidelberg, Germany

Origin of Element Name

origin

rubidus

origin description

color—Latin for dark red or deepest red

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Rb

origin

rubidium

origin description

element name

Quantity

Rubidium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

9.0×101 ppm

Earth's Mantle

0.605 ppm

primitive mantle

Bulk Earth

0.4 ppm

Ocean Water

0.12 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

16 ppm

River Water

0.001 ppm

U.S. Coal

21 ppm

Human Body

680 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

0.1 ppm to 5 ppm

Human Hair

0.2 ppm to 0.5 ppm

Human Kidney

17 ppm to 52 ppm

Human Liver

5 ppm to 45 ppm

Human Muscle

20 ppm to 70 ppm

Human Nail

3 ppm

Ferns

17 ppm to 50 ppm

Fungi

50 ppm

Solar System

7.09

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

2.60 ± 0.15

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

2.40 ± 0.02

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Rubidium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

rubidium

German

Rubidium

Italian

rubidio

Spanish

rubidio

Portuguese

rubídio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

rubidide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

rubidium

Ligands

rubidido

Heteroatomic Anion

rubidate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

rubida

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

rubidy

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