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Triple Point

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Element

Temperature

Pressure

Notes

Argon

  83.8058 K   

68.891 ± 0.002 kPa

ITS-90 fixed point

Arsenic

 817 °C       

37 atm

Carbon

graphite-liquid-vapor triple point

    4800 ± 150 K      

110 ± 20 bar

Chlorine

  172.17 ± 0.05 K     

0.01374 atm

Fluorine

  53.477 ± 0.002 K    

0.252 ± 0.005 kPa

Gallium

 302.9166 K   

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point

Hydrogen

equilibrium

  13.8033 K   

7.030 kPa

Equilibrium hydrogen near this temperature consists of 0.21% orthohydrogen and 99.79% parahydrogen. This temperature is an ITS-90 fixed point.

normal

  13.952 K    

7.200 kPa

Normal hydrogen consists of 75% orthohydrogen and 25% parahydrogen. This temperature is an ITS-90 second-quality, secondary reference point.

deuterium

equilibrium

  18.689 K    

17.130 kPa

Equilibrium deuterium at the triple point consists of 98.5% orthohydrogen and 1.5% parahydrogen. This temperature is an ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point.

normal

  18.724 K    

17.150 kPa

Normal deuterium at the triple point consists of 66.7% orthohydrogen and 33.3% parahydrogen. This temperature is an ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point.

tritium

  20.62 K     

21.6 kPa

Indium

 429.7436 K   

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point

Iron

α-γ-ε triple point

 678 K        

8.2 ± 0.1 GPa

γ-δ-liquid triple point

1718 °C       

5.2 GPa

Krypton

 115.775 K    

73.2 kPa

ITS-90 second-quality, secondary reference point

Mercury

 234.3156 K   

ITS-90 fixed point

Neon

  24.5561 K   

43 kPa

ITS-90 fixed point

neon-20

  24.541 K    

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point

Nitrogen

  63.151 K    

12.523 ± 0.010 kPa

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point

nitrogen-14

  63.15 K     

12.52 kPa

nitrogen-15

  63.19 K     

Oxygen

  54.3584 K   

0.152 kPa

ITS-90 fixed point

Rubidium

 312.41       

Xenon

 161.405 K    

81.61973 ± 0.02666 kPa

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

Bedford, R. E., G. Bonnier, H. Maas, and F. Pavese. "Recommended Values of Temperature on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 for a Selected Set of Secondary Reference Points." Metrologia, volume 33, number 2, 1996, pp. 133–154. doi:10.1088/0026-1394/33/2/3

Chase, Malcolm W., editor. JPCRD Monograph No. 9: NIST-JANAF Thermochemical Tables, (Part I and Part II). Woodbury, NY: American Chemical Society and the American Institute of Physics, 1998.

Freiman, Yu. A., and H. J. Jodl. "Solid oxygen." Physics Reports, volume 401, number 1-4, 2004, pp. 1–228. doi:10.1016/j.physrep.2004.06.002

Freiman, Yuri A. "Phase Diagrams, Structures, and Thermodynamic Properties." pp. 286–364 in Physics of Cryocrystals. Edited by Vadim G. Manzhelii and Yuri A. Freiman. Woodbury, NY: AIP Press, 1997.

Gaspard, J. P., R. Bellisent, C. Bergman, C. Bichara, A. Pellegatti, and R. Ceolin. "Atomic and Electronic Structure of Liquid As." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, volume 106, number 1-3, 1988, pp. 108–111. doi:10.1016/0022-3093(88)90240-2

Guminski, C. "The F-Hg system (Fluorine-Mercury)." Journal of Phase Equilibria, volume 22, number 5, 2001, pp. 578–581.

Hurly, J. J. "Thermophysical Properties of Chlorine from Speed-of-Sound Measurements." International Journal of Thermophysics, volume 23, number 2, 2002, pp. 455–475. doi:10.1023/A:1015109503116

Kerley, Gerald I., and Lalit C. Chhabildas, editors. Multicomponent-Multiphase Equation of State for Carbon. SAND2001-2619, Sandia National Laboratories, September 2001.

Klotz, S., Y. Le Godec, Th. Strässle, and U. Stuhr. "The α-γ-ε Triple Point of Iron Investigated by High Pressure-High Temperature Neutron Scattering." Applied Physics Letters, volume 93, number 9, 2008, pp. 091904–1 to 091904–3. doi:10.1063/1.2976128

Lide, David R., editor. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 88th edition. Boca Raton, Florida: Taylor & Francis Group, 2008.

Musella, M., C. Ronchi, M. Brykin, and M. Sheindlin. "The Molten State of Graphite: An Experimental Study." Journal of Applied Physics, volume 84, number 5, 1998, pp. 2530–2537. doi:10.1063/1.368414

Preston-Thomas, H. "The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90)." Metrologia, volume 27, number 1, 1990, pp. 3–10. doi:10.1088/0026-1394/27/1/002

Šifner, O., and J. Klomfar. "Thermodynamic Properties of Xenon from the Triple Point to 800 K with Pressures up to 350 MPa." Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, volume 23, number 1, 1994, pp. 63–152.

Souers, P. Clark. Hydrogen Properties for Fusion Energy. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1986.

Span, Roland, Eric W. Lemmon, Richard T. Jacobsen, Wolfgang Wagner, and Akimichi Yokozeki. "A Reference Equation of State for the Thermodynamic Properties of Nitrogen for Temperatures from 63.151 to 1000 K and Pressures to 2200 MPa." Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, volume 29, number 6, 2000, pp. 1361–1433.

Swartzendruber, L. J. "The Fe (Iron) System." Bulletin of Alloy Phase Diagrams, volume 3, number 2, 1982, pp. 161–165.

Tegeler, Ch., R. Span, and W. Wagner. "A New Equation of State for Argon Covering the Fluid Region for Temperatures From the Melting Line to 700 K at Pressures up to 1000 MPa." Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, volume 28, number 3, 1999, pp. 779–850.