Krypton

Krypton Navigation

Other Elements

By Name

By Symbol

By Number

Solutions manuals and the Numerari scientific calculator from KnowledgeDoor Learn more about our solutions manuals Learn more about Numerari

Quantity

Krypton Quick Reference

Click button to see citations

Notes

Symbol

Kr

Atomic Number

36

Atomic Weight

Rounded

83.80

for regular calculations

Standard

83.798 ± 0.002

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

2

less common with disagreement

0

more common with disagreement

Pauling Electronegativity

3.00

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p6

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p6

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Term Symbol

1S0

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

13.999605 ± 0.000002 eV

II  (2)

24.35984 ± 0.00012 eV  

III (3)

36.950 ± 0.012 eV      

IV  (4)

52.49 ± 0.20 eV        

see all 36 energies ...

Electron Affinity

<0 eV

<0 cm-1

Density

gas

25 °C, 1 atm

3.425 g/L 

273.15 K, 1 atm

3.739 g/L 

liquid, 115.78 K

2.449 g/ml

solid, 4 K

3.09 g/cm3

Molar Volume

gas, 273.15 K, 1 atm

22.4131 L/mol 

solid, 0 K, 0 atm

27.095 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 atm

115.78 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

119.81 K

Thermal Conductivity

gas

400 K, 1 atm

0.01226 W/(m K)

300 K, 1 atm

0.00949 W/(m K)

290 K, 1 atm

0.00920 W/(m K)

280 K, 1 atm

0.00891 W/(m K)

270 K, 1 atm

0.00860 W/(m K)

200 K, 1 atm

0.00653 W/(m K)

saturated vapor, 200 K

0.0112 W/(m K) 

extrapolated or estimated

saturated liquid, 200 K

0.0366 W/(m K) 

see all 53 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

117 pm

double bond

121 pm

triple bond

108 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

1.64 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

9.05 kJ/mol

Quantity

Krypton Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

13.999605 ± 0.000002 eV

II  (2)

24.35984 ± 0.00012 eV  

III (3)

36.950 ± 0.012 eV      

IV  (4)

52.49 ± 0.20 eV        

see all 36 energies ...

Electron Affinity

<0 eV

<0 cm-1

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

14326 eV  

LI   (2s)

 1921 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

 1730.9 eV

LIII (2p3/2)

 1678.4 eV

see all 12 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p6

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p6

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Term Symbol

1S0

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

35.2316

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

35.2316

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

13.1990

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

26.3980

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 8 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

67.4%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.652 

ωL1

0.0041

ωL2

0.020 

ωL3

0.022 

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.27 

F13

0.52 

F23

0.073

Quantity

Krypton Physical Properties

Notes

Density

gas

25 °C, 1 atm

3.425 g/L 

273.15 K, 1 atm

3.739 g/L 

liquid, 115.78 K

2.449 g/ml

solid, 4 K

3.09 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

83.80 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

83.798 ± 0.002 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

gas, 273.15 K, 1 atm

22.4131 L/mol 

solid, 0 K, 0 atm

27.095 cm3/mol

Physical Form

colorless gas

Speed of Sound

gas, 273.2

 213 m/s

liquid

1120 m/s

calculated value

Dielectric Constant

119.8 K

1.66

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

77 K

1.8 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

77 K

0.56 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

33 cm3

Quantity

Krypton Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

2

less common with disagreement

0

more common with disagreement

Pauling Electronegativity

3.00

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity

hybridsp3

3.31

hybrid12.5% s

3.00

orbitalp

2.66

Sanderson Electronegativity

2.91

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

2.94

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

17.54 eV

Pauling units

 2.966  

Allen Electronegativity

2.966

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

6.3916 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

2.82

Cohesive Energy

per mole

11.2 kJ/mol   

per atom

 0.116 eV/atom

Quantity

Krypton Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 atm

115.78 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

119.81 K

Thermal Conductivity

gas

400 K, 1 atm

0.01226 W/(m K)

300 K, 1 atm

0.00949 W/(m K)

290 K, 1 atm

0.00920 W/(m K)

280 K, 1 atm

0.00891 W/(m K)

270 K, 1 atm

0.00860 W/(m K)

200 K, 1 atm

0.00653 W/(m K)

saturated vapor, 200 K

0.0112 W/(m K) 

extrapolated or estimated

saturated liquid, 200 K

0.0366 W/(m K) 

see all 53 conductivities ...

Triple Point

temperature

115.775 K

ITS-90 second-quality, secondary reference point

pressure

73.2 kPa

Critical Point

209.4 K

Vapor Pressure

-153.6 °C

100 kPa

-174.6 °C

10 kPa

-188.9 °C

1 kPa

see all 22 pressures ...

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

1.64 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

9.05 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

20.786 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.248 J/(g K)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

71.9 K

Quantity

Krypton Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7439-90-9

DOT Number

1056

compressed

1056

refrigerated liquid (cryogenic liquid)

1970

ICSC Number

liquefied, cooled

0604

UN Number

liquefied, cooled

1970

Quantity

Krypton Atomic Size

Notes

Orbital Radius

79.5 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

117 pm

double bond

121 pm

triple bond

108 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

116 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: 0

169 pm

Bondi Van Der Waals Radius

202 pm

Quantity

Krypton Crystal Structure

Notes

Nearest Neighbor Distance

4 K, 1 atm

400 pm

Atomic Concentration

4 K, 1 atm

2.17×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Krypton History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1898

discoverer

William Ramsay

birth

October 2, 1852

death

July 23, 1916

discoverer

Morris William Travers

birth

January 24, 1872

death

1961

location of discovery

London, England

Origin of Element Name

origin

kryptos

origin description

property—Greek for hidden

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Kr

origin

krypton

origin description

element name

U.S. Towns Named After Elements

Krypton, Kentucky

Quantity

Krypton Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

1×10-4 ppm

Earth's Atmosphere

1.14 ppm

Ocean Water

0.00021 ppm

Solar System

45

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

3.30 ± 0.06

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Krypton Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

krypton

German

Krypton

Italian

cripto

Spanish

kriptón

Portuguese

criptônio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

kryptonide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

krypton

Ligands

kryptonido

Heteroatomic Anion

kryptonate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

kryptona

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

kryptony

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

Albright, Thomas A., and Jeremy K. Burdett. Problems in Molecular Orbital Theory. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Allen, Leland C. "Electronegativity Is the Average One-Electron Energy of the Valence-Shell Electrons in Ground-State Free Atoms." Journal of the American Chemical Society, volume 111, number 25, 1989, pp. 9003–9014. doi:10.1021/ja00207a003

Allen, Leland C., and James E. Huheey. "The Definition of Electronegativity and the Chemistry of the Noble Gases." Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, volume 42, number 10, 1980, pp. 1523–1524. doi:10.1016/0022-1902(80)80132-1

Anders, Edward, and Nicolas Grevesse. "Abundances of the Elements: Meteoritic and Solar." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, volume 53, number 1, 1989, pp. 197–214. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(89)90286-X

Andersen, T., H. K. Haugen, and H. Hotop. "Binding Energies in Atomic Negative Ions: III." Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, volume 28, number 6, 1999, pp. 1511–1533.

Bearden, J. A., and A. F. Burr. "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels." Reviews of Modern Physics, volume 39, number 1, 1967, pp. 125–142. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.39.125

Bedford, R. E., G. Bonnier, H. Maas, and F. Pavese. "Recommended Values of Temperature on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 for a Selected Set of Secondary Reference Points." Metrologia, volume 33, number 2, 1996, pp. 133–154. doi:10.1088/0026-1394/33/2/3

Bondi, A. "Van der Waals Volumes and Radii." The Journal of Physical Chemistry, volume 68, number 3, 1964, pp. 441–451. doi:10.1021/j100785a001

Bratsch, Steven G. "Revised Mulliken Electronegativities: I. Calculation and Conversion to Pauling Units." Journal of Chemical Education, volume 65, number 1, 1988, pp. 34–41. doi:10.1021/ed065p34

Campbell, J. L. "Fluorescence Yields and Coster–Kronig Probabilities for the Atomic L Subshells." Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, volume 85, number 2, 2003, pp. 291–315. doi:10.1016/S0092-640X(03)00059-7

Cardona, M., and L. Ley, editors. Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1978.

Chauvin, Remi. "Explicit Periodic Trend of van der Waals Radii." The Journal of Physical Chemistry, volume 96, number 23, 1992, pp. 9194–9197. doi:10.1021/j100202a023

Clementi, E., and D. L. Raimondi. "Atomic Screening Constants from SCF Functions." Journal of Chemical Physics, volume 38, number 11, 1963, pp. 2686–2689. doi:10.1063/1.1733573

Cohen, E. Richard, David R. Lide, and George L. Trigg, editors. AlP Physics Desk Reference, 3rd edition. New York: Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 2003.

Connelly, Neil G., Ture Damhus, Richard M. Hartshorn, and Alan T. Hutton. Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry: IUPAC Recommendations 2005. Cambridge: RSC Publishing, 2005.

Cordero, Beatriz, Verónica Gómez, Ana E. Platero-Prats, Marc Revés, Jorge Echeverría, Eduard Cremades, Flavia Barragán, and Santiago Alvarez. "Covalent Radii Revisited." Dalton Transactions, number 21, 2008, pp 2832–2838. doi:10.1039/b801115j

Cox, P. A. The Elements: Their Origin, Abundance and Distribution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.

de Podesta, Michael. Understanding the Properties of Matter, 2nd edition. London: Taylor & Francis, 2002.

Emsley, John. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Emsley, John. The Elements, 3rd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Firestone, Richard B. Table of Isotopes, 8th edition, volume 2. Edited by Virginia S. Shirley, with assistant editors Coral M. Baglin, S. Y. Frank Chu, and Jean Zipkin. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996.

Ghosh, Dulal C., and Kartick Gupta. "A New Scale Of Electronegativity Of 54 Elements Of Periodic Table Based On Polarizability Of Atoms." Journal of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, volume 5, number 4, 2006, pp. 895–911. doi:10.1142/S0219633606002726

Greenwood, N. N., and A. Earnshaw. Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997.

Gwyn Williams. Electron Binding Energies. http://www.jlab.org/~gwyn/ebindene.html. Accessed on April 30, 2010.

Halpern, Arthur M. "From Dimer to Crystal: Calculating the Cohesive Energy of Rare Gas Solids." Journal of Chemical Education, volume 89, number 5, 2012, pp. 592–597. doi:10.1021/ed200348j

Ho, C. Y., R. W. Powell, and P. E. Liley. "Thermal Conductivity of the Elements: A Comprehensive Review." Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, volume 3, supplement 1, 1974, pp. I–1 to I–796.

Horvath, A. L. "Critical Temperature of Elements and the Periodic System." Journal of Chemical Education, volume 50, number 5, 1973, pp. 335–336. doi:10.1021/ed050p335

Huheey, James E., Ellen A. Keiter, and Richard L Keiter. Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th edition. New York: HarperCollins College Publishers, 1993.

Ihde, Aaron J. The Development of Modern Chemistry. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1984.

International Labour Organization (ILO). International Chemical Safety Card for Krypton (Liquefied, Cooled). http://www.ilo.org/legacy/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc06/icsc0604.htm. Accessed on May 4, 2010.

International Labour Organization (ILO). International Chemical Safety Card for Krypton (Liquefied, Cooled). http://www.ilo.org/legacy/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc06/icsc0604.htm. Accessed on May 5, 2010.

Jensen, William B. "Why Helium Ends in “-ium”." Journal of Chemical Education, volume 81, number 7, 2004, p. 944. doi:10.1021/ed081p944

Kittel, Charles. Introduction to Solid State Physics, 8th edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2005.

Krause, M. O. "Atomic Radiative and Radiationless Yields for K and L Shells." Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, volume 8, number 2, 1979, pp. 307–327.

Liboff, Richard L. Introductory Quantum Mechanics, 3rd edition. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 1998.

Lide, David R., editor. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 88th edition. Boca Raton, Florida: Taylor & Francis Group, 2008.

Magomedov, M. N. "The Surface Energy of Cryocrystals." Technical Physics Letters, volume 31, number 12, 2005, pp. 1039–1042. doi:10.1134/1.2150892

Mann, Joseph B., Terry L. Meek, and Leland C. Allen. "Configuration Energies of the Main Group Elements." Journal of the American Chemical Society, volume 122, number 12, 2000, pp. 2780–2783. doi:10.1021/ja992866e

Marshall, James L. Discovery of the Elements: A Search for the Fundamental Principles of the Universe, 2nd edition. Boston, MA: Pearson Custom Publishing, 2002.

Martin, W. C. "Electronic Structure of the Elements." The European Physical Journal C — Particles and Fields, volume 15, number 1–4, 2000, pp. 78–79. doi:10.1007/BF02683401

Mechtly, Eugene A. "Properties of Materials." pp. 4–1 to 4–33 in Reference Data For Engineers: Radio, Electronics, Computer, and Communications. By Mac E. Van Valkenburg, edited by Wendy M. Middleton. Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002. doi:10.1016/B978-075067291-7/50006-6

Miessler, Gary L., and Donald A. Tarr. Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.

Nagle, Jeffrey K. "Atomic Polarizability and Electronegativity." Journal of the American Chemical Society, volume 112, number 12, 1990, pp. 4741–4747. doi:10.1021/ja00168a019

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Earth Fact Sheet. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/earthfact.html. Accessed on September 18, 2011.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). International Chemical Safety Card for Krypton (Liquefied, Cooled). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsneng/neng0604.html. Accessed on May 5, 2010.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). International Chemical Safety Card for Krypton (Liquefied, Cooled). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsneng/neng0604.html. Accessed on May 4, 2010.

Nobel Foundation. Sir William Ramsay: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1904. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1904/ramsay-bio.html. Accessed on July 16, 2009.

Oxtoby, David W., H. P. Gillis, and Alan Campion. Principles of Modern Chemistry, 6th edition. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2008.

Palme, H., and H. Beer. "Meteorites and the Composition of the Solar Photosphere." pp. 204–206 in Landolt–Börnstein—Group VI: Astronomy and Astrophysics. Edited by H. H. Voigt. New York: Springer–Verlag, 1993. doi:10.1007/10057790_59

Pauling, Linus. The Nature of the Chemical Bond, 3rd edition. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1960.

Pekka Pyykkö. Self-Consistent, Year-2009 Covalent Radii. http://www.chem.helsinki.fi/~pyykko/Radii09.pdf. Accessed on November 20, 2010.

Pyykkö, Pekka, and Michiko Atsumi. "Molecular Double-Bond Covalent Radii for Elements Li-E112." Chemistry - A European Journal, volume 15, number 46, 2009, pp. 12770–12779. doi:10.1002/chem.200901472

Pyykkö, Pekka, and Michiko Atsumi. "Molecular Single-Bond Covalent Radii for Elements 1-118." Chemistry - A European Journal, volume 15, number 1, 2009, pp. 186–197. doi:10.1002/chem.200800987

Pyykkö, Pekka, Sebastian Riedel, and Michael Patzschke. "Triple-Bond Covalent Radii." Chemistry - A European Journal, volume 11, number 12, 2005, pp. 3511–3520. doi:10.1002/chem.200401299

Ringnes, Vivi. "Origin of the Names of Chemical Elements." Journal of Chemical Education, volume 66, number 9, 1989, pp. 731–738. doi:10.1021/ed066p731

Rohrer, Gregory S. Structure and Bonding in Crystalline Materials. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Saloman, E. B. "Energy Levels and Observed Spectral Lines of Krypton, Kr I through Kr XXXVI." Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, volume 36, number 1, 2007, pp. 215–386. doi:10.1063/1.2227036

Samsonov, G. V., editor. Handbook of the Physicochemical Properties of the Elements. New York: Plenum Publishing Corporation, 1968.

Silbey, Robert J., Robert A. Alberty, and Moungi G. Bawendi. Physical Chemistry, 4th edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.

Stewart, G. R. "Measurement of Low-Temperature Specific Heat." Review of Scientific Instruments, volume 54, number 1, 1983, pp. 1–11. doi:10.1063/1.1137207

Tari, A. The Specific Heat of Matter at Low Temperatures. London: Imperial College Press, 2003.

U. S. Department of Transportation (DOT), Transport Canada (TC), Secretariat of Transport and Communications of Mexico (SCT), and Centro de Información Química para Emergencias (CIQUIME). 2008 Emergency Response Guidebook.

Waber, J. T., and Don T. Cromer. "Orbital Radii of Atoms and Ions." Journal of Chemical Physics, volume 42, number 12, 1965, pp. 4116–4123. doi:10.1063/1.1695904

Wagman, Donald D., William H. Evans, Vivian B. Parker, Richard H. Schumm, Iva Halow, Sylvia M. Bailey, Kenneth L. Churney, and Ralph L. Nuttall. "Thermal Conductivity of the Elements: A Comprehensive Review." Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, volume 11, supplement 2, 1982, pp. 2–1 to 2–392.

Waldron, Kimberley A., Erin M. Fehringer, Amy E. Streeb, Jennifer E. Trosky, and Joshua J. Pearson. "Screening Percentages Based on Slater Effective Nuclear Charge as a Versatile Tool for Teaching Periodic Trends." Journal of Chemical Education, volume 78, number 5, 2001, pp. 635–639. doi:10.1021/ed078p635

Weeks, Mary Elvira, and Henry M. Leicester. Discovery of the Elements, 7th edition. Easton, PA: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968.

Wieser, Michael E., and Tyler B. Coplen. "Atomic weights of the elements 2009 (IUPAC Technical Report)." Pure and Applied Chemistry, volume 83, number 2, 2011, pp. 359–396. doi:10.1351/PAC-REP-10-09-14

Yaws, Carl L. "Liquid Density of the Elements." Chemical Engineering, volume 114, number 12, 2007, pp. 44–46.

Yaws, Carl L. The Yaws Handbook of Physical Properties for Hydrocarbons and Chemicals. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company, 2005.