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Indium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

In

Atomic Number

49

Atomic Weight

Rounded

114.8

for regular calculations

Standard

114.818 ± 0.003

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

3

more common

2

less common

1

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.78

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Orbital Filling Order

[Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p1

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Term Symbol

2P1/2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 5.78636 eV

II  (2)

18.8703 eV 

III (3)

28.03 eV   

IV  (4)

54 eV      

Electron Affinity

0.404 ± 0.009 eV

 3260 ± 70 cm-1 

Density

liquid, 429.75 K

7.031 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

7.310 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

15.76 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 atm

429.7485 K

ITS-90 fixed point (freezing point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

2345.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

74.5 W/(m K)

300 K, polycrystalline

81.6 W/(m K)

298.2 K, polycrystalline

81.8 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

83.7 W/(m K)

200 K, polycrystalline

89.7 W/(m K)

see all 54 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

142 pm

double bond

136 pm

triple bond

146 pm

Atomic Radius

167 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

3.27 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

226.4 kJ/mol

Quantity

Indium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 5.78636 eV

II  (2)

18.8703 eV 

III (3)

28.03 eV   

IV  (4)

54 eV      

Electron Affinity

0.404 ± 0.009 eV

 3260 ± 70 cm-1 

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

27940 eV  

LI   (2s)

 4238 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

 3938 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

 3730 eV  

see all 14 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Orbital Filling Order

[Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p1

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Term Symbol

2P1/2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

48.0097

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

48.0097

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

18.0618

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

36.1236

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 11 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

82.6%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.851

ωL1

0.020

ωL2

0.061

ωL3

0.060

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.10 

F13

0.45 

F23

0.146

Quantity

Indium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 429.75 K

7.031 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

7.310 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

114.8 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

114.818 ± 0.003 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

15.76 cm3/mol

Physical Form

soft white metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

32.1×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

solid, 293 K

1200 m/s to 1230 m/s

calculated value

Specific Gravity

68 °F, water at 4 °C (39.2 °F)

7.31

Young's Modulus

10.6 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.450

Electrical Resistivity

solid, 295 K

8.75×10-8 Ohm m

Superconducting Transition Temperature

3.4145 K

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point

Superconducting Critical Magnetic Field at Absolute Zero

293×10-4 T

Superconducting Energy Gap

0 K

10.5×10-4 eV

Mineralogical Hardness

1.2

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

41.1 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.0243 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

16 cm3

Quantity

Indium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

3

more common

2

less common

1

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.78

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3, hybridsp2

1.76

oxidation state: 1, orbitalp

0.82

Sanderson Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

2.138

oxidation state: 1

0.71

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.49

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

9.793 eV

Pauling units

1.656   

Allen Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.656

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.78

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

4.253 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

1.52

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

3.1 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.7

Free Electron Fermi Surface Parameters

300 K

electron concentration

11.49×1022 cm-3

radius parameter

2.41

fermi wavevector

1.50×108 cm-1

fermi velocity

1.74×108 cm/s

fermi energy

8.60 eV

fermi temperature

9.98×104 K

Chemical Hardness

2.8 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

243 kJ/mol    

per atom

  2.52 eV/atom

Quantity

Indium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 atm

429.7485 K

ITS-90 fixed point (freezing point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

2345.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

74.5 W/(m K)

300 K, polycrystalline

81.6 W/(m K)

298.2 K, polycrystalline

81.8 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

83.7 W/(m K)

200 K, polycrystalline

89.7 W/(m K)

see all 54 conductivities ...

Triple Point

429.7436 K

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point

Critical Point

6730 K

Vapor Pressure

2067 °C

100 kPa

1689 °C

10 kPa

1417 °C

1 kPa

1212 °C

100 Pa

1052 °C

10 Pa

923 °C

1 Pa

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

3.27 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

226.4 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

26.74 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.233 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

1.66 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

112 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

129 K

Quantity

Indium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-74-6

ICSC Number

1293

RTECS Number

NL1050000

Quantity

Indium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

167 pm

Orbital Radius

138.2 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

142 pm

double bond

136 pm

triple bond

146 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

142 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 4

 76 pm  

coordination number: 6

 94.0 pm

coordination number: 8

106 pm  

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 4

62 pm  

coordination number: 6

80.0 pm

coordination number: 8

92 pm  

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

 81 pm

ion charge: +1

132 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

104 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

2.2×102 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

253 pm

Bondi Van Der Waals Radius

193 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

155 pm

Quantity

Indium Crystal Structure

Notes

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

325 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

3.83×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Indium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1863

discoverer

Ferdinand Reich

birth

February 19, 1799

death

April 27, 1882

discoverer

Hieronymus Theodor Richter

birth

November 21, 1824

death

September 25, 1898

location of discovery

Freiberg, Germany

Origin of Element Name

origin

indicum

origin description

color—Latin for violet or indigo

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: In

origin

indium

origin description

element name

Quantity

Indium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

2.5×10-1 ppm

Earth's Mantle

13 ppb

primitive mantle

Bulk Earth

0.007 ppm

Ocean Water

1×10-7 ppm

U.S. Coal

<0.3 ppm

estimated from USGS and literature data

Solar System

0.184

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

1.66 ± 0.15

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

0.80 ± 0.04

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Indium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

indium

German

Indium

Italian

indio

Spanish

indio

Portuguese

índio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

indide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

indium

Ligands

indido

Heteroatomic Anion

indate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

inda

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

indy

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