Fluorine

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Fluorine Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

F

Atomic Number

9

Atomic Weight

Rounded

19.00

for regular calculations

Standard

18.9984032 ± 0.0000005

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

 0

less common

-1

more common

Pauling Electronegativity

3.98

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[He] 2s2 2p5

[He] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of helium

Orbital Filling Order

[He] 2s2 2p5

[He] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of helium

Term Symbol

2P3/2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

17.4228 eV

II  (2)

34.9708 eV

III (3)

62.7084 eV

IV  (4)

87.1398 eV

see all 9 energies ...

Electron Affinity

3.4011895 ± 0.0000025 eV

27432.446 ± 0.019 cm-1  

Density

gas, 25 °C, 1 atm

1.553 g/L 

liquid, 53.48 K

1.706 g/ml

Molar Volume

solid, the element's solid allotrope existing at the lowest temperature

11.20 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 atm

53.49 ± 0.01 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

84.958 ± 0.003 K

Thermal Conductivity

gas

400 K, 1 atm

0.0371 W/(m K)

300 K, 1 atm

0.0279 W/(m K)

290 K, 1 atm

0.0269 W/(m K)

280 K, 1 atm

0.0260 W/(m K)

270 K, 1 atm

0.0251 W/(m K)

200 K, 1 atm

0.0184 W/(m K)

see all 41 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

64 pm

double bond

59 pm

triple bond

53 pm

Atomic Radius

71 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

5.1 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

6.548 kJ/mol

Quantity

Fluorine Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

17.4228 eV

II  (2)

34.9708 eV

III (3)

62.7084 eV

IV  (4)

87.1398 eV

see all 9 energies ...

Electron Affinity

3.4011895 ± 0.0000025 eV

27432.446 ± 0.019 cm-1  

Electron Binding Energies

(1s)

696.7 eV

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[He] 2s2 2p5

[He] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of helium

Orbital Filling Order

[He] 2s2 2p5

[He] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of helium

Term Symbol

2P3/2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

8.6501

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

8.6501

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

2.5638

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

5.1276

Zeff = ζ × n

2p

Orbital Exponent

2.5500

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

5.1000

Zeff = ζ × n

Screening Percentage

43.2%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.010

Quantity

Fluorine Physical Properties

Notes

Density

gas, 25 °C, 1 atm

1.553 g/L 

liquid, 53.48 K

1.706 g/ml

Molar Mass

Rounded

19.00 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

18.9984032 ± 0.0000005 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, the element's solid allotrope existing at the lowest temperature

11.20 cm3/mol

Physical Form

pale yellow gas

Dielectric Constant

-332 °F

1.5 

53.48 K

1.49

Gram Atomic Volume

15 cm3

Quantity

Fluorine Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

 0

less common

-1

more common

Pauling Electronegativity

3.98

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity

hybridsp3

4.30

hybrid14.3% s

3.91

orbitalp

3.35

Sanderson Electronegativity

4.000

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

4.10

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

24.80 eV

Pauling units

 4.193  

Allen Electronegativity

4.193

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 1

3.98

Boyd-Edgecombe Electronegativity

4.00

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

10.0378 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

4.23

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

10.41 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: -1

4.05

Chemical Hardness

7.01 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

81.0 kJ/mol  

per atom

 0.84 eV/atom

Quantity

Fluorine Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 atm

53.49 ± 0.01 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

84.958 ± 0.003 K

Thermal Conductivity

gas

400 K, 1 atm

0.0371 W/(m K)

300 K, 1 atm

0.0279 W/(m K)

290 K, 1 atm

0.0269 W/(m K)

280 K, 1 atm

0.0260 W/(m K)

270 K, 1 atm

0.0251 W/(m K)

200 K, 1 atm

0.0184 W/(m K)

see all 41 conductivities ...

Triple Point

temperature

53.477 ± 0.002 K

pressure

0.252 ± 0.005 kPa

Critical Point

temperature

144.32 ± 0.05 K

pressure

5.215 MPa

Vapor Pressure

-188.3 °C

100 kPa

-204.3 °C

10 kPa

-214.8 °C

1 kPa

see all 22 pressures ...

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

5.1 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

6.548 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

31.304 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.824 J/(g K)

Quantity

Fluorine Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7782-41-4

DOT Number

1045

compressed

1045

refrigerated liquid (cryogenic liquid)

9192

ICSC Number

0046

RTECS Number

LM6475000

UN Number

1045

Quantity

Fluorine Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

71 pm

Orbital Radius

39.6 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

64 pm

double bond

59 pm

triple bond

53 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

57 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: -1

coordination number: 2

114.5 pm

coordination number: 3

116 pm  

coordination number: 4

117 pm  

coordination number: 6

119 pm  

ion charge: +7, coordination number: 6

 22 pm  

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: -1

coordination number: 2

128.5 pm

coordination number: 3

130 pm  

coordination number: 4

131 pm  

coordination number: 6

133 pm  

ion charge: +7, coordination number: 6

  8 pm  

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: -1

136 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

 19 pm

ion charge: -1

136 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

1.5×102 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

165 pm

Bondi Van Der Waals Radius

147 pm

Pauling Van Der Waals Radius

135 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

50 pm

Quantity

Fluorine Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-fluorine

symbol

αF

allotrope

β-fluorine

symbol

βF

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

144 pm

Quantity

Fluorine History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1886

discoverer

Henri Moissan

birth

September 28, 1852

death

February 20, 1907

location of discovery

Paris, France

Origin of Element Name

origin

fluere

origin description

property—Latin for to flow

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: F

origin

fluorine

origin description

element name

U.S. Towns Named After Elements

Fluorine, Nevada

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

name

fluoricum

no matching symbol specified

symbol

Fl

Quantity

Fluorine Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

5.85×102 ppm

Earth's Mantle

25 ppm

primitive mantle

Bulk Earth

10 ppm

Ocean Water

1.4 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

466 ppm

River Water

0.1 ppm

U.S. Coal

98 ppm

Human Body

2.6 g

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

2×103 ppm to 12×103 ppm

Human Hair

<15 ppm

Human Kidney

0.04 ppm to 10 ppm

Human Liver

0.22 ppm to 7 ppm

Human Muscle

0.05 ppm

Solar System

843

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

4.56 ± 0.3

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

4.46 ± 0.06

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Fluorine Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

fluor

German

Fluor

Italian

fluoro

Spanish

flúor

Portuguese

fluor

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

fluoride (general)

F-, fluoride(1-)

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

fluorine (general)

F+, fluorine(1+)

Ligands

F-, fluorido(1-)

Heteroatomic Anion

fluorate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

fluora

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

fluory

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