Nitrogen

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Nitrogen Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

N

Atomic Number

7

Atomic Weight

Rounded

14.007

for regular calculations

Standard

14.00643 to 14.00728

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

 5

more common

 4

less common

 3

less common with disagreement

 2

less common

 1

less common

 0

less common

-1

less common

-2

less common

-3

more common with disagreement

Pauling Electronegativity

3.04

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[He] 2s2 2p3

[He] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of helium

Orbital Filling Order

[He] 2s2 2p3

[He] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of helium

Term Symbol

4S3/2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

14.5341 eV 

II  (2)

29.6013 eV 

III (3)

47.44924 eV

IV  (4)

77.4735 eV 

see all 7 energies ...

Electron Affinity

-0.07 ± 0.02 eV 

 -560 ± 160 cm-1

Density

126.192 ± 0.010 K, 3.3958 ± 0.0017 MPa

0.3133 ± 0.0004 g/cm3

critical point

gas

400.0 K, 1 atm

0.8533 g/L

300.0 K

1 atm

1.138 g/L 

1 bar

1.123 g/L 

25 °C, 1 atm

1.1449 g/L

290.0 K, 1 atm

1.178 g/L 

280.0 K, 1 atm

1.220 g/L 

273.15 K, 1 atm

1.250 g/L 

270.0 K, 1 atm

1.265 g/L 

200.0 K, 1 atm

1.711 g/L 

liquid, 63.15 K

0.870 g/ml

solid, 20 K

1.03 g/cm3

see all 59 densities ...

Molar Volume

gas, 273.15 K, 1 atm

22.4131 L/mol

liquid

273.3 K, 20.420 kbar

21.4 ml/mol  

247.5 K, 16.720 kbar

22.2 ml/mol  

192.83 K, 10.195 kbar

24.20 ml/mol 

175.82 K, 8.404 kbar

24.78 ml/mol 

160.70 K, 6.915 kbar

25.44 ml/mol 

145.08 K, 5.496 kbar

26.19 ml/mol 

131.14 K, 4.320 kbar

26.89 ml/mol 

115.66 K, 3.130 kbar

27.81 ml/mol 

102.15 K, 2.203 kbar

28.67 ml/mol 

87.03 K, 1.239 kbar

29.80 ml/mol 

63.148 K, 0 kbar

32.33 ml/mol 

solid

273.3 K, 20.420 kbar

21.0 cm3/mol 

247.5 K, 16.720 kbar

21.8 cm3/mol 

192.83 K, 10.195 kbar

23.63 cm3/mol

175.82 K, 8.404 kbar

24.16 cm3/mol

160.70 K, 6.915 kbar

24.74 cm3/mol

145.08 K, 5.496 kbar

25.39 cm3/mol

131.14 K, 4.320 kbar

25.99 cm3/mol

115.66 K, 3.130 kbar

26.77 cm3/mol

102.15 K, 2.203 kbar

27.46 cm3/mol

87.03 K, 1.239 kbar

28.26 cm3/mol

63.148 K, 0 kbar

29.72 cm3/mol

Melting Point

71 GPa

1400 K   

50 GPa

1920 K   

19 GPa

830 ± 40 K

1 atm

  63.15 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

77.352 K

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point

Thermal Conductivity

gas

400 K, 1 atm

0.03252 W/(m K)

300 K, 1 atm

0.02598 W/(m K)

290 K, 1 atm

0.02524 W/(m K)

280 K, 1 atm

0.02449 W/(m K)

270 K, 1 atm

0.02374 W/(m K)

200 K, 1 atm

0.01826 W/(m K)

see all 51 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

71 pm

double bond

60 pm

triple bond

54 pm

Atomic Radius

74 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

0.72 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

5.577 kJ/mol

Quantity

Nitrogen Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

14.5341 eV 

II  (2)

29.6013 eV 

III (3)

47.44924 eV

IV  (4)

77.4735 eV 

see all 7 energies ...

Electron Affinity

-0.07 ± 0.02 eV 

 -560 ± 160 cm-1

Electron Binding Energies

K  (1s)

409.9 eV

LI (2s)

 37.3 eV

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[He] 2s2 2p3

[He] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of helium

Orbital Filling Order

[He] 2s2 2p3

[He] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of helium

Term Symbol

4S3/2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

6.6651

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

6.6651

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

1.9237

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

3.8474

Zeff = ζ × n

2p

Orbital Exponent

1.9170

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

3.8340

Zeff = ζ × n

Screening Percentage

44.3%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.0043

Quantity

Nitrogen Physical Properties

Notes

Density

126.192 ± 0.010 K, 3.3958 ± 0.0017 MPa

0.3133 ± 0.0004 g/cm3

critical point

gas

400.0 K, 1 atm

0.8533 g/L

300.0 K

1 atm

1.138 g/L 

1 bar

1.123 g/L 

25 °C, 1 atm

1.1449 g/L

290.0 K, 1 atm

1.178 g/L 

280.0 K, 1 atm

1.220 g/L 

273.15 K, 1 atm

1.250 g/L 

270.0 K, 1 atm

1.265 g/L 

200.0 K, 1 atm

1.711 g/L 

liquid, 63.15 K

0.870 g/ml

solid, 20 K

1.03 g/cm3

see all 59 densities ...

Molar Mass

Rounded

14.007 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

14.00643 g/mol to 14.00728 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

gas, 273.15 K, 1 atm

22.4131 L/mol

liquid

273.3 K, 20.420 kbar

21.4 ml/mol  

247.5 K, 16.720 kbar

22.2 ml/mol  

192.83 K, 10.195 kbar

24.20 ml/mol 

175.82 K, 8.404 kbar

24.78 ml/mol 

160.70 K, 6.915 kbar

25.44 ml/mol 

145.08 K, 5.496 kbar

26.19 ml/mol 

131.14 K, 4.320 kbar

26.89 ml/mol 

115.66 K, 3.130 kbar

27.81 ml/mol 

102.15 K, 2.203 kbar

28.67 ml/mol 

87.03 K, 1.239 kbar

29.80 ml/mol 

63.148 K, 0 kbar

32.33 ml/mol 

solid

273.3 K, 20.420 kbar

21.0 cm3/mol 

247.5 K, 16.720 kbar

21.8 cm3/mol 

192.83 K, 10.195 kbar

23.63 cm3/mol

175.82 K, 8.404 kbar

24.16 cm3/mol

160.70 K, 6.915 kbar

24.74 cm3/mol

145.08 K, 5.496 kbar

25.39 cm3/mol

131.14 K, 4.320 kbar

25.99 cm3/mol

115.66 K, 3.130 kbar

26.77 cm3/mol

102.15 K, 2.203 kbar

27.46 cm3/mol

87.03 K, 1.239 kbar

28.26 cm3/mol

63.148 K, 0 kbar

29.72 cm3/mol

Physical Form

colorless gas

Speed of Sound

gas

400 K, 1 bar

407.5 m/s

27 °C, 1 atm

353 m/s  

300 K, 1 bar

353.2 m/s

290 K, 1 bar

347.2 m/s

280 K, 1 bar

341.2 m/s

270 K, 1 bar

335.0 m/s

200 K, 1 bar

288.1 m/s

see all 55 speeds of sound ...

Dielectric Constant

336 °F

1.45   

20 °C, 1 atm

1.00058

63.15 K

1.47   

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

81 K

1.2 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

81 K

0.80 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

14 cm3

Quantity

Nitrogen Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

 5

more common

 4

less common

 3

less common with disagreement

 2

less common

 1

less common

 0

less common

-1

less common

-2

less common

-3

more common with disagreement

Pauling Electronegativity

3.04

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity

hybridsp

3.68

hybridsp2

3.26

hybridsp3

3.04

hybrid20% s

2.90

orbitalp

2.28

Sanderson Electronegativity

3.194

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

3.07

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

18.13 eV

Pauling units

 3.066  

Allen Electronegativity

3.066

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

3.04

Boyd-Edgecombe Electronegativity

3.08

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

7.4964 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

3.12

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

7.30 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

3.3

oxidation state: -3

3.0

Chemical Hardness

7.23 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

474 kJ/mol    

per atom

  4.92 eV/atom

Quantity

Nitrogen Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

71 GPa

1400 K   

50 GPa

1920 K   

19 GPa

830 ± 40 K

1 atm

  63.15 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

77.352 K

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point

Thermal Conductivity

gas

400 K, 1 atm

0.03252 W/(m K)

300 K, 1 atm

0.02598 W/(m K)

290 K, 1 atm

0.02524 W/(m K)

280 K, 1 atm

0.02449 W/(m K)

270 K, 1 atm

0.02374 W/(m K)

200 K, 1 atm

0.01826 W/(m K)

see all 51 conductivities ...

Triple Point

temperature

63.151 K

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point

pressure

12.523 ± 0.010 kPa

nitrogen-14

temperature

63.15 K

pressure

12.52 kPa

nitrogen-15

63.19 K

Critical Point

temperature

126.192 ± 0.010 K

pressure

3.3958 ± 0.0017 MPa

Vapor Pressure

-195.9 °C

100 kPa

-211.1 °C

10 kPa

-220.2 °C

1 kPa

see all 23 pressures ...

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

0.72 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

5.577 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

gas

400 K, 1 bar

29.27 J/(mol K)

300 K, 1 bar

29.17 J/(mol K)

290 K, 1 bar

29.17 J/(mol K)

280 K, 1 bar

29.17 J/(mol K)

270 K, 1 bar

29.17 J/(mol K)

220 K, 1 bar

29.21 J/(mol K)

see all 50 capacities ...

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

1.040 J/(g K)

Isochoric Molar Heat Capacity

gas

400 K, 1 bar

20.94 J/(mol K)

300 K, 1 bar

20.82 J/(mol K)

290 K, 1 bar

20.81 J/(mol K)

280 K, 1 bar

20.81 J/(mol K)

270 K, 1 bar

20.81 J/(mol K)

200 K, 1 bar

20.81 J/(mol K)

see all 50 capacities ...

Quantity

Nitrogen Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7727-37-9

DOT Number

1066

compressed

1066

refrigerated liquid (cryogenic liquid)

1977

ICSC Number

compressed gas

1198

liquefied

1199

RTECS Number

QW9700000

UN Number

compressed gas

1066

liquefied

1977

Quantity

Nitrogen Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

74 pm

Orbital Radius

52.1 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

71 pm

double bond

60 pm

triple bond

54 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

71 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: -3, coordination number: 4

132 pm  

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6

 30 pm  

ion charge: +5

coordination number: 3

  4.4 pm

coordination number: 6

 27 pm  

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: -3, coordination number: 4

146 pm  

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6

 16 pm  

ion charge: +5

coordination number: 3

-10.4 pm

coordination number: 6

 13 pm  

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +5

 11 pm

ion charge: -3

171 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

 25 pm

ion charge: -1

247 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

1.6×102 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

179 pm

Bondi Van Der Waals Radius

155 pm

Pauling Van Der Waals Radius

1.5×102 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

65 pm

Quantity

Nitrogen Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-nitrogen

symbol

α-N2

allotrope

β-nitrogen

symbol

β-N2

allotrope

γ-nitrogen

symbol

γ-N2

alternate symbol

N-II

allotrope

cubic gauche nitrogen

alternate name

polymeric nitrogen

symbol

cg-N

allotrope

molecular nitrogen

alternate name

nitrogen

alternate name

dinitrogen

symbol

N2

Quantity

Nitrogen History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1772

discoverer

Daniel Rutherford

birth

November 3, 1749

death

December 15, 1819

location of discovery

Edinburgh, Scotland

Origin of Element Name

origin

niter gen

origin description

property—Greek for saltpeter producing

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: N

origin

nitrogen

origin description

element name

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

name

azote

matching symbol

Az

Quantity

Nitrogen Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

1.9×101 ppm

Earth's Mantle

2 ppm

primitive mantle

Earth's Core

75 ppm

Bulk Earth

25 ppm

Earth's Atmosphere

78.08%

N2

Ocean Water

0.5 ppm

River Water

0.25 ppm

U.S. Coal

1.3%

Human Body

1.8 kg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

43×103 ppm

Human Hair

160×103 ppm

Human Kidney

72×103 ppm

Human Liver

72×103 ppm

Human Muscle

72×103 ppm

Human Nail

150×103 ppm

Bacteria

96×103 ppm

Ferns

20×103 ppm

Fungi

34×103 ppm

Universe

0.00011

relative to hydrogen = 1.00000

Solar System

3.13×106

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

7.92 ± 0.06

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

6.33 ± 0.04

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Halley's Comet

42 ± 14 atoms

number of atoms for every 100 atoms of magnesium

Quantity

Nitrogen Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

azote

German

Stickstoff

Italian

azoto

Spanish

nitrógeno

Portuguese

nitrogênio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

nitride (general)

N3-, nitride(3-), azanetriide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

nitrogen (general)

N+, nitrogen(1+)

Ligands

N3-, nitrido(3-), azanetriido

Heteroatomic Anion

nitrate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

aza

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

azy

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