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Mercury Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Hg

Atomic Number

80

Atomic Weight

Rounded

200.6

for regular calculations

Standard

200.59 ± 0.02

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

2

more common

1

more common with disagreement

Pauling Electronegativity

2.00

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

1S0

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

10.4375 eV

II  (2)

18.7568 eV

III (3)

34.2 eV   

Electron Affinity

<0 eV

<0 cm-1

Density

liquid

25 °C

13.534 g/ml   

293.150 K, 1 atm

13.545854 g/ml

234.29 K

13.630 g/ml   

solid, 227 K

14.26 g/cm3   

see all 46 densities ...

Molar Volume

solid, the element's solid allotrope existing at the lowest temperature

14.09 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 atm

234.3210 K

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point (freezing point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

629.769 K

ITS-90 second-quality, secondary reference point

Thermal Conductivity

liquid

400 K

 9.84 W/(m K)

300 K

 8.34 W/(m K)

298.2 K

 8.30 W/(m K)

273.2 K

 7.82 W/(m K)

solid, 200 K

polycrystalline

28.9 W/(m K) 

parallel to trigonal-axis

34.0 W/(m K) 

perpendicular to trigonal-axis

26.4 W/(m K) 

see all 48 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

133 pm

double bond

142 pm

Atomic Radius

155 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

2.331 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

59.15 kJ/mol

Quantity

Mercury Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

10.4375 eV

II  (2)

18.7568 eV

III (3)

34.2 eV   

Electron Affinity

<0 eV

<0 cm-1

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

83102 eV  

LI   (2s)

14839 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

14209 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

12284 eV  

see all 21 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

1S0

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

78.4581

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

78.4581

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

29.5547

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

59.1094

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 14 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

84.7%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.962

ωL1

0.121

ωL2

0.37 

ωL3

0.322

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.072

F13

0.615

F23

0.123

Quantity

Mercury Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid

25 °C

13.534 g/ml   

293.150 K, 1 atm

13.545854 g/ml

234.29 K

13.630 g/ml   

solid, 227 K

14.26 g/cm3   

see all 46 densities ...

Molar Mass

Rounded

200.6 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

200.59 ± 0.02 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, the element's solid allotrope existing at the lowest temperature

14.09 cm3/mol

Physical Form

heavy silvery liquid

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

60.4×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

liquid, 20 °C, longitudinal wave

1454 m/s

solid, 203 K

2670 m/s

Specific Gravity

68 °F, water at 4 °C (39.2 °F)

13.6

Dielectric Constant

298 °F

1.00

Electrical Resistivity

liquid, 295 K

95.9×10-8 Ohm m

Contact Potential

4.50 eV

Photoelectric Work Function

4.53 eV

Superconducting Transition Temperature

α-mercury

4.154 ± 0.001 K

β-mercury

3.949 K

Superconducting Critical Magnetic Field at Absolute Zero

α-mercury

412×10-4 T

Superconducting Energy Gap

α-mercury, 0 K

16.5×10-4 eV

Mineralogical Hardness

1.5

Reflectivity

surface polished

0.450 μm

72.3%

0.550 μm

71.2%

0.650 μm

71.5%

see all 6 reflectivities ...

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

1 K

38.2 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

1 K

0.0260 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

14 cm3

Quantity

Mercury Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

2

more common

1

more common with disagreement

Pauling Electronegativity

2.00

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity

hybridsp

1.81

Sanderson Electronegativity

2.195

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

1.44

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

10.44 eV

Pauling units

 1.76   

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

2.00

Nagle Electronegativity

1.54

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

4.91 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.95

Chemical Hardness

5.54 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

65 kJ/mol    

per atom

 0.67 eV/atom

Quantity

Mercury Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 atm

234.3210 K

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point (freezing point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

629.769 K

ITS-90 second-quality, secondary reference point

Thermal Conductivity

liquid

400 K

 9.84 W/(m K)

300 K

 8.34 W/(m K)

298.2 K

 8.30 W/(m K)

273.2 K

 7.82 W/(m K)

solid, 200 K

polycrystalline

28.9 W/(m K) 

parallel to trigonal-axis

34.0 W/(m K) 

perpendicular to trigonal-axis

26.4 W/(m K) 

see all 48 conductivities ...

Triple Point

234.3156 K

ITS-90 fixed point

Critical Point

1735 K

Vapor Pressure

355.9 °C

100 kPa

250.3 °C

10 kPa

175.6 °C

1 kPa

see all 16 pressures ...

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

2.331 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

59.15 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

323.15 K, 50 MPa

27.751 J/(mol K)

318.15 K, 50 MPa

27.777 J/(mol K)

313.15 K, 50 MPa

27.803 J/(mol K)

308.15 K, 50 MPa

27.830 J/(mol K)

303.15 K, 50 MPa

27.857 J/(mol K)

298.15 K, 50 MPa

27.885 J/(mol K)

293.15 K, 50 MPa

27.914 J/(mol K)

see all 50 capacities ...

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.140 J/(g K)

Isochoric Molar Heat Capacity

323.15 K, 50 MPa

23.985 J/(mol K)

318.15 K, 50 MPa

24.050 J/(mol K)

313.15 K, 50 MPa

24.116 J/(mol K)

308.15 K, 50 MPa

24.182 J/(mol K)

303.15 K, 50 MPa

24.250 J/(mol K)

298.15 K, 50 MPa

24.318 J/(mol K)

293.15 K, 50 MPa

24.388 J/(mol K)

see all 49 capacities ...

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

1.86 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

72 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

92 K

Quantity

Mercury Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7439-97-6

DOT Number

2809

metal

2809

ICSC Number

0056

RTECS Number

OV4550000

UN Number

2809

Quantity

Mercury Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

155 pm

Orbital Radius

112.6 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

133 pm

double bond

142 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

132 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +1

coordination number: 3

111 pm

coordination number: 6

133 pm

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 2

 83 pm

coordination number: 4

110 pm

coordination number: 6

116 pm

coordination number: 8

128 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +1

coordination number: 3

 97 pm

coordination number: 6

119 pm

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 2

 69 pm

coordination number: 4

 96 pm

coordination number: 6

102 pm

coordination number: 8

114 pm

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +2

110 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

125 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

205 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

225 pm

Bondi Van Der Waals Radius

170 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

150 pm

Quantity

Mercury Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-mercury

symbol

αHg

allotrope

β-mercury

symbol

βHg

allotrope

γ-mercury

symbol

γHg

Nearest Neighbor Distance

227 K, 1 atm

301 pm

Atomic Concentration

227 K, 1 atm

4.26×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Mercury History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

circa 1500 BC

discoverer

unknown

location of discovery

unknown

Origin of Element Name

origin

Mercury

origin description

celestial body—planet

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Hg

origin

hydrargyrum

origin description

word—Latin for liquid silver

U.S. Towns Named After Elements

Mercury, Nevada

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

symbol

Hy

Quantity

Mercury Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

8.5×10-2 ppm

Earth's Mantle

6 ppb

primitive mantle

Earth's Core

0.05 ppm

Bulk Earth

0.02 ppm

Ocean Water

5×10-5 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Ridge

0.4 ppm

River Water

7×10-5 ppm

U.S. Coal

0.17 ppm

Human Body

6 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

0.45 ppm

Human Hair

1.2 ppm to 7.6 ppm

Human Kidney

0.3 ppm to 12 ppm

Human Liver

0.018 ppm to 3.7 ppm

Human Muscle

0.02 ppm to 0.7 ppm

Human Nail

0.07 ppm to 7 ppm

Fungi

0.7 ppm to 70 ppm

Solar System

0.34

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Meteorites

1.16 ± 0.08

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Mercury Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

mercure

German

Quecksilber

Italian

mercurio

Spanish

mercurio

Portuguese

mercúrio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

mercuride

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

mercury (general)

Hg2+, mercury(2+)

Ligands

mercurido

Heteroatomic Anion

mercurate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

mercura

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

mercury

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

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