Silicon

Silicon Navigation

Other Elements

By Name

By Symbol

By Number

Solutions manuals and the Numerari scientific calculator from KnowledgeDoor Learn more about our solutions manuals Learn more about Numerari

Quantity

Silicon Quick Reference

Click button to see citations

Notes

Symbol

Si

Atomic Number

14

Atomic Weight

Rounded

28.085

for regular calculations

Standard

28.084 to 28.086

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

 4

more common

 3

less common

 2

less common

 1

less common

-1

less common

-2

less common

-3

less common

-4

less common with disagreement

Pauling Electronegativity

1.90

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ne] 3s2 3p2

[Ne] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of neon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ne] 3s2 3p2

[Ne] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of neon

Term Symbol

3P0

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 8.15168 eV          

II  (2)

16.34584 eV          

III (3)

33.49327 ± 0.00012 eV

IV  (4)

45.14215 ± 0.00014 eV

see all 14 energies ...

Electron Affinity

1.3895220 ± 0.0000024 eV

11207.252 ± 0.018 cm-1  

Density

liquid, 1688 K

2.49 g/ml     

solid

1500 K

2.294 g/cm3   

1000 K

2.312 g/cm3   

400 K

2.327 g/cm3   

300 K

2.329 g/cm3   

25 °C

2.329002 g/cm3

hydrostatic weighing, high purity crystal

20 °C

2.32831 ± 0.00031 g/cm3

determined by the suspension method

200 K

2.330 g/cm3   

100 K

2.331 g/cm3   

see all 21 densities ...

Molar Volume

solid, 22.5 °C, 0 atm

12.0588349 ± 0.0000011 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 atm

1414 °C

1 bar

1685 ± 3 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

2900 °C

1.33×10-4 Pa

1080 °C

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K

 98.9 W/(m K)

300 K

148 W/(m K)  

298.2 K

149 W/(m K)  

273.2 K

168 W/(m K)  

200 K

264 W/(m K)  

see all 44 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

116 pm

double bond

107 pm

triple bond

102 pm

Atomic Radius

118 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

39.6 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

383.3 kJ/mol

Quantity

Silicon Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 8.15168 eV          

II  (2)

16.34584 eV          

III (3)

33.49327 ± 0.00012 eV

IV  (4)

45.14215 ± 0.00014 eV

see all 14 energies ...

Electron Affinity

1.3895220 ± 0.0000024 eV

11207.252 ± 0.018 cm-1  

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

1839 eV   

LI   (2s)

 149.7 eV 

LII  (2p1/2)

  99.82 eV

LIII (2p3/2)

  99.42 eV

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ne] 3s2 3p2

[Ne] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of neon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ne] 3s2 3p2

[Ne] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of neon

Term Symbol

3P0

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

13.5745

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

13.5745

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

 4.5100

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

 9.0200

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 5 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

70.4%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.050   

ωL1

0.000030

ωL2

0.00037 

ωL3

0.00038 

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.32

F13

0.64

Quantity

Silicon Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 1688 K

2.49 g/ml     

solid

1500 K

2.294 g/cm3   

1000 K

2.312 g/cm3   

400 K

2.327 g/cm3   

300 K

2.329 g/cm3   

25 °C

2.329002 g/cm3

hydrostatic weighing, high purity crystal

20 °C

2.32831 ± 0.00031 g/cm3

determined by the suspension method

200 K

2.330 g/cm3   

100 K

2.331 g/cm3   

see all 21 densities ...

Molar Mass

Rounded

28.085 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

28.084 g/mol to 28.086 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 22.5 °C, 0 atm

12.0588349 ± 0.0000011 cm3/mol

Physical Form

gray crystals or brown amorphous solid

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

450 K

3.44×10-6 K-1

single-crystal silicon

400 K

3.24×10-6 K-1

single-crystal silicon

350 K

2.97×10-6 K-1

single-crystal silicon

300 K

2.63×10-6 K-1

single-crystal silicon

298.2 K

(2.59 ± 0.05)×10-6 K-1

293 K

2.57×10-6 K-1

single-crystal silicon

see all 17 coefficients ...

Speed of Sound

solid

2200 m/s

Specific Gravity

77 °F, water at 4 °C (39.2 °F)

2.33

Young's Modulus

113 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.420

Dielectric Constant

300 K, 750 MHz

11.9

4.2 K, 750 MHz, capacitance bridge

12.1

Electrical Resistivity

solid, 300 K

3.16×103 Ohm m

Contact Potential

4.2 eV

Photoelectric Work Function

4.52 eV

Thermionic Work Function

3.59 eV

Superconducting Transition Temperature

15 GPa, simple hexagonal phase

8.2 K

maximum temperature

Mineralogical Hardness

6.5

Reflectivity

surface polished

0.5 μm

34%

0.6 μm

32%

0.8 μm

29%

see all 8 reflectivities ...

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

98.8 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.01012 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

12 cm3

Quantity

Silicon Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

 4

more common

 3

less common

 2

less common

 1

less common

-1

less common

-2

less common

-3

less common

-4

less common with disagreement

Pauling Electronegativity

1.90

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity

hybridsp3

2.28

Sanderson Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

2.138

oxidation state: 3

1.99

oxidation state: 1

2.08

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

1.74

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

11.33 eV

Pauling units

 1.916  

Allen Electronegativity

1.916

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

1.90

Boyd-Edgecombe Electronegativity

1.87

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

5.5236 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

1.87

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

4.77 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

1.75

Chemical Hardness

3.38 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

446 kJ/mol    

per atom

  4.63 eV/atom

Quantity

Silicon Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 atm

1414 °C

1 bar

1685 ± 3 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

2900 °C

1.33×10-4 Pa

1080 °C

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K

 98.9 W/(m K)

300 K

148 W/(m K)  

298.2 K

149 W/(m K)  

273.2 K

168 W/(m K)  

200 K

264 W/(m K)  

see all 44 conductivities ...

Critical Point

5159 K

Vapor Pressure

3264 °C

100 kPa

2748 °C

10 kPa

2363 °C

1 kPa

2066 °C

100 Pa

1829 °C

10 Pa

1635 °C

1 Pa

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

39.6 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

383.3 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

19.99 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.712 J/(g K)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

645 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

692 K

Quantity

Silicon Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-21-3

DOT Number

powder, amorphous

1346

ICSC Number

1508

RTECS Number

VW0400000

UN Number

1346

Quantity

Silicon Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

118 pm

Orbital Radius

106.8 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

116 pm

double bond

107 pm

triple bond

102 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

111 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 4

40 pm  

coordination number: 6

54.0 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 4

26 pm  

coordination number: 6

40.0 pm

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +4

 41 pm

ion charge: -4

271 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

 65 pm

ion charge: -1

384 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

2.1×102 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

226 pm

Bondi Van Der Waals Radius

210 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

110 pm

Quantity

Silicon Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-silicon

symbol

αSi

allotrope

β-silicon

symbol

βSi

allotrope

γ-silicon

symbol

γSi

allotrope

δ-silicon

symbol

δSi

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

235 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

5.00×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Silicon History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1824

discoverer

Jöns Jacob Berzelius

birth

August 20, 1779

death

August 7, 1848

location of discovery

Stockholm, Sweden

Origin of Element Name

origin

silex

origin description

mineral—Latin for flint or hard stone

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Si

origin

silicon

origin description

element name

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

name

silicium

no matching symbol specified

Quantity

Silicon Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

2.82×105 ppm

Earth's Mantle

21.22%

primitive mantle

Earth's Core

6.0%

Bulk Earth

16.1%

Ocean Water

1 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

10.8%

Ridge

6.1%

River Water

4 ppm

U.S. Coal

2.7%

Human Body

1 g

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

17 ppm

Human Hair

20 ppm to 2×103 ppm

Human Kidney

14 ppm to 200 ppm

Human Liver

13 ppm to 120 ppm

Human Muscle

100 ppm to 200 ppm

Human Nail

310 ppm to 3500 ppm

Bacteria

180 ppm

Ferns

5500 ppm

Universe

0.00004

relative to hydrogen = 1.00000

Solar System

1.00×106

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

7.55 ± 0.05

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Moon

Terrae

16.3 ± 1.0 %

Maria

16.9 ± 1.0 %

Average

16.4%

Meteorites

7.55

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Halley's Comet

185 ± 19 atoms

number of atoms for every 100 atoms of magnesium

Quantity

Silicon Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

silicium

German

Silicium

Italian

silicio

Spanish

silicio

Portuguese

silício

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

silicide (general)

Si-, silicide(•1-)

Si4-, silicide(4-)

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

silicon (general)

Si+, silicon(•1+)

Si4+, silicon(4+)

Ligands

silicido (general)

Si-, silicido(•1-)

Si4-, silicido(4-)

Heteroatomic Anion

silicate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

sila

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

sily

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

Albright, Thomas A., and Jeremy K. Burdett. Problems in Molecular Orbital Theory. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Allen, Leland C. "Electronegativity Is the Average One-Electron Energy of the Valence-Shell Electrons in Ground-State Free Atoms." Journal of the American Chemical Society, volume 111, number 25, 1989, pp 9003–9014. doi:10.1021/ja00207a003

Allen, Leland C. "Electronegativity Is the Average One-Electron Energy of the Valence-Shell Electrons in Ground-State Free Atoms." Journal of the American Chemical Society, volume 111, number 25, 1989, pp. 9003–9014. doi:10.1021/ja00207a003

Allred, A. L. "Electronegativity Values from Thermochemical Data." Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, volume 17, number 3-4, 1961, pp. 215–221. doi:10.1016/0022-1902(61)80142-5

Allred, A. L., and E. G. Rochow. "A Scale of Electronegativity Based on Electrostatic Force." Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, volume 5, number 4, 1958, pp. 264–268. doi:10.1016/0022-1902(58)80003-2

Anders, Edward, and Nicolas Grevesse. "Abundances of the Elements: Meteoritic and Solar." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, volume 53, number 1, 1989, pp. 197–214. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(89)90286-X

Barsan, Michael E., editor. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. Cincinnati, Ohio: NIOSH Publications, 2007.

Batsanov, S. S. "Van der Waals Radii of Elements." Inorganic Materials, volume 37, number 9, 2001, pp. 871–885. See abstract

Bearden, J. A., and A. F. Burr. "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels." Reviews of Modern Physics, volume 39, number 1, 1967, pp. 125–142. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.39.125

Blondel, Christophe, Christian Delsart, and Fabienne Goldfarb. "Electron Spectrometry at the μeV Level and the Electron Affinities of Si and F." Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, volume 34, number 9, 2001, pp. L281–L288. doi:10.1088/0953-4075/34/9/101

Bondi, A. "Van der Waals Volumes and Radii." The Journal of Physical Chemistry, volume 68, number 3, 1964, pp. 441–451. doi:10.1021/j100785a001

Bowen, H. J. M. Environmental Chemistry of the Elements. London: Academic Press, Inc., 1979.

Boyd, Russell J., and Kenneth E. Edgecombe. "Atomic and Group Electronegativities from the Electron-Density Distributions of Molecules." Journal of the American Chemical Society, volume 110, number 13, 1988, pp 4182–4186. doi:10.1021/ja00221a014

Bratsch, Steven G. "Revised Mulliken Electronegativities: I. Calculation and Conversion to Pauling Units." Journal of Chemical Education, volume 65, number 1, 1988, pp. 34–41. doi:10.1021/ed065p34

Cardarelli, François. Materials Handbook: A Concise Desktop Reference, 2nd edition. London: Springer–Verlag, 2008.

Cardona, M., and L. Ley, editors. Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1978.

Chang, K. J., Michel M. Dacorogna, Marvin L. Cohen, J. M. Mignot, G. Chouteau, and G. Martinez. "Superconductivity in High-Pressure Metallic Phases of Si." Physical Review Letters, volume 54, number 21, 1985, pp. 2375–2378. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.54.2375

Chase, Malcolm W., editor. JPCRD Monograph No. 9: NIST-JANAF Thermochemical Tables, (Part I and Part II). Woodbury, NY: American Chemical Society and the American Institute of Physics, 1998.

Chauvin, Remi. "Explicit Periodic Trend of van der Waals Radii." The Journal of Physical Chemistry, volume 96, number 23, 1992, pp. 9194–9197. doi:10.1021/j100202a023

Clementi, E., and D. L. Raimondi. "Atomic Screening Constants from SCF Functions." Journal of Chemical Physics, volume 38, number 11, 1963, pp. 2686–2689. doi:10.1063/1.1733573

Cohen, E. Richard, David R. Lide, and George L. Trigg, editors. AlP Physics Desk Reference, 3rd edition. New York: Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 2003.

Connelly, Neil G., Ture Damhus, Richard M. Hartshorn, and Alan T. Hutton. Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry: IUPAC Recommendations 2005. Cambridge: RSC Publishing, 2005.

Cordero, Beatriz, Verónica Gómez, Ana E. Platero-Prats, Marc Revés, Jorge Echeverría, Eduard Cremades, Flavia Barragán, and Santiago Alvarez. "Covalent Radii Revisited." Dalton Transactions, number 21, 2008, pp 2832–2838. doi:10.1039/b801115j

Croswell, Ken. The Alchemy of the Heavens. New York: Anchor Books, 1995.

de Podesta, Michael. Understanding the Properties of Matter, 2nd edition. London: Taylor & Francis, 2002.

Donohue, Jerry. The Structures Of The Elements, 2nd edition. Malabar, Florida: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company, 1974.

Dronskowski, Richard. Computational Chemistry of Solid State Materials. Weinheim, Germany: WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2005.

Ebbing, Darrell D., and Steven D. Gammon. General Chemistry, 8th edition. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005.

Emsley, John. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Emsley, John. The Elements, 3rd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Firestone, Richard B. Table of Isotopes, 8th edition, volume 2. Edited by Virginia S. Shirley, with assistant editors Coral M. Baglin, S. Y. Frank Chu, and Jean Zipkin. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996.

Galasso, Francis S. Structure and Properties of Inorganic Solids. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1970.

Ghosh, Dulal C., and Kartick Gupta. "A New Scale Of Electronegativity Of 54 Elements Of Periodic Table Based On Polarizability Of Atoms." Journal of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, volume 5, number 4, 2006, pp. 895–911. doi:10.1142/S0219633606002726

Greenwood, N. N., and A. Earnshaw. Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997.

Gwyn Williams. Electron Binding Energies. http://www.jlab.org/~gwyn/ebindene.html. Accessed on April 30, 2010.

Ho, C. Y., R. W. Powell, and P. E. Liley. "Thermal Conductivity of the Elements: A Comprehensive Review." Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, volume 3, supplement 1, 1974, pp. I–1 to I–796.

Horvath, A. L. "Critical Temperature of Elements and the Periodic System." Journal of Chemical Education, volume 50, number 5, 1973, pp. 335–336. doi:10.1021/ed050p335

Huheey, James E., Ellen A. Keiter, and Richard L Keiter. Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th edition. New York: HarperCollins College Publishers, 1993.

Ihde, Aaron J. The Development of Modern Chemistry. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1984.

International Labour Organization (ILO). International Chemical Safety Card for Silicon. http://www.ilo.org/legacy/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc15/icsc1508.htm. Accessed on May 4, 2010.

International Labour Organization (ILO). International Chemical Safety Card for Silicon. http://www.ilo.org/legacy/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc15/icsc1508.htm. Accessed on May 5, 2010.

Jensen, J. E., R. B. Stewart, W. A Tuttle, H. Brechna, and A. G. Prodell, editors. Brookhaven National Laboratory Selected Cryogenic Data Notebook. BNL 10200-R, Vol. 1, Brookhaven National Laboratory, August 1980.

Jessberger, Elmar K., Alexander Christoforidis, and Jochen Kissel. "Aspects of the Major Element Composition of Halley's Dust." Nature, volume 332, number 21, 1988, pp. 691–695. doi:10.1038/332691a0

King, H. W. "Pressure-Dependent Allotropic Structures of the Elements." Bulletin of Alloy Phase Diagrams, volume 4, number 4, 1983, pp. 449–450. doi:10.1007/BF02868110

Kittel, Charles. Introduction to Solid State Physics, 8th edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2005.

Korpinarov, N., M. Marinov, D. Dimova-Malinovska, H. Nichev, M. Konstantinova, and D. Vasilev. "Silicon Nanowires and Whiskers Obtained by Arc Discharge." Journal of Physics: Conference Series, volume 113, 2008, 012007 (5pp). doi:10.1088/1742-6596/113/1/012007

Krause, M. O. "Atomic Radiative and Radiationless Yields for K and L Shells." Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, volume 8, number 2, 1979, pp. 307–327.

Li, Y.-H., and J. E. Schoonmaker. "Chemical Composition and Mineralogy of Marine Sediments." pp. 1–36 in Sediments, Diagenesis, and Sedimentary Rocks. Edited by Fred T. Mackenzie. Oxford: Elsevier Ltd., 2005.

Liboff, Richard L. Introductory Quantum Mechanics, 3rd edition. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 1998.

Lide, David R., editor. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 88th edition. Boca Raton, Florida: Taylor & Francis Group, 2008.

Madelung, Otfried, editor. Semiconductors — Basic Data, 2nd edition. Berlin: Springer–Verlag, 1996.

Mann, Joseph B., Terry L. Meek, and Leland C. Allen. "Configuration Energies of the Main Group Elements." Journal of the American Chemical Society, volume 122, number 12, 2000, pp. 2780–2783. doi:10.1021/ja992866e

Manuel, O., editor. Origin of Elements in the Solar System: Implications of Post-1957 Observations. New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.

Marshall, James L. Discovery of the Elements: A Search for the Fundamental Principles of the Universe, 2nd edition. Boston, MA: Pearson Custom Publishing, 2002.

Martin, W. C. "Electronic Structure of the Elements." The European Physical Journal C — Particles and Fields, volume 15, number 1–4, 2000, pp. 78–79. doi:10.1007/BF02683401

Martin, W. C., and Romuald Zalubas. "Energy Levels of Silicon, Si I through Si XIV." Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, volume 12, number 2, 1983, pp. 323–380.

McDonough, W. F. "Compositional Model for the Earth's Core." pp. 547–568 in The Mantle and Core. Edited by Richard W. Carlson. Oxford: Elsevier Ltd., 2005.

Mechtly, Eugene A. "Properties of Materials." pp. 4–1 to 4–33 in Reference Data For Engineers: Radio, Electronics, Computer, and Communications. By Mac E. Van Valkenburg, edited by Wendy M. Middleton. Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002. doi:10.1016/B978-075067291-7/50006-6

Miessler, Gary L., and Donald A. Tarr. Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.

Mohr, Peter J., Barry N. Taylor, and David B. Newell. "CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants 2006." Reviews of Modern Physics, volume 80, number 2, 2008, pp. 633–730. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.80.633

Nagle, Jeffrey K. "Atomic Polarizability and Electronegativity." Journal of the American Chemical Society, volume 112, number 12, 1990, pp. 4741–4747. doi:10.1021/ja00168a019

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). International Chemical Safety Card for Silicon. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsneng/neng1508.html. Accessed on May 4, 2010.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). International Chemical Safety Card for Silicon. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsneng/neng1508.html. Accessed on May 5, 2010.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances for Silicon. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh-rtecs/vw61a80.html. Accessed on May 5, 2010.

Orem, W. H., and R. B. Finkelman. "Coal Formation and Geochemistry." pp. 191–222 in Sediments, Diagenesis, and Sedimentary Rocks. Edited by Fred T. Mackenzie. Oxford: Elsevier Ltd., 2005.

Oxtoby, David W., H. P. Gillis, and Alan Campion. Principles of Modern Chemistry, 6th edition. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2008.

Palme, H., and H. Beer. "Meteorites and the Composition of the Solar Photosphere." pp. 204–206 in Landolt–Börnstein—Group VI: Astronomy and Astrophysics. Edited by H. H. Voigt. New York: Springer–Verlag, 1993. doi:10.1007/10057790_59

Palme, H., and Hugh St. C. O'Neill. "Cosmochemical Estimates of Mantle Composition." pp. 1–38 in The Mantle and Core. Edited by Richard W. Carlson. Oxford: Elsevier Ltd., 2005.

Pauling, Linus. The Nature of the Chemical Bond, 3rd edition. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1960.

Pearson, Ralph G. "Absolute Electronegativity and Hardness: Application to Inorganic Chemistry." Inorganic Chemistry, volume 27, number 4, 1988, pp 734–740. doi:10.1021/ic00277a030

Pekka Pyykkö. Self-Consistent, Year-2009 Covalent Radii. http://www.chem.helsinki.fi/~pyykko/Radii09.pdf. Accessed on November 20, 2010.

Pyykkö, Pekka, and Michiko Atsumi. "Molecular Double-Bond Covalent Radii for Elements Li-E112." Chemistry - A European Journal, volume 15, number 46, 2009, pp. 12770–12779. doi:10.1002/chem.200901472

Pyykkö, Pekka, and Michiko Atsumi. "Molecular Single-Bond Covalent Radii for Elements 1-118." Chemistry - A European Journal, volume 15, number 1, 2009, pp. 186–197. doi:10.1002/chem.200800987

Pyykkö, Pekka, Sebastian Riedel, and Michael Patzschke. "Triple-Bond Covalent Radii." Chemistry - A European Journal, volume 11, number 12, 2005, pp. 3511–3520. doi:10.1002/chem.200401299

Ringnes, Vivi. "Origin of the Names of Chemical Elements." Journal of Chemical Education, volume 66, number 9, 1989, pp. 731–738. doi:10.1021/ed066p731

Rohrer, Gregory S. Structure and Bonding in Crystalline Materials. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Samsonov, G. V., editor. Handbook of the Physicochemical Properties of the Elements. New York: Plenum Publishing Corporation, 1968.

Sanderson, R. T. Simple Inorganic Substances. Malabar, FL: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Co., Inc., 1989.

Sanderson, R. T. "Principles of Electronegativity: Part I. General Nature." Journal of Chemical Education, volume 65, number 2, 1988, pp. 112–118. doi:10.1021/ed065p112

Sanderson, R. T. Polar Covalence. New York: Academic Press, Inc., 1983.

Sansonetti, J. E., and W. C. Martin. "Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopic Data." Journal Of Physical And Chemical Reference Data, volume 34, number 4, 2005, pp. 1559–2259. doi:10.1063/1.1800011

Scientific Group Thermodata Europe (SGTE). Pure Substances: Part 1—Elements and Compounds from AgBr to Ba3N2. Edited by I. Hurtado and D. Neuschütz. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1999. doi:10.1007/10652891_3

Shannon, R. D. "Revised Effective Ionic Radii and Systematic Studies of Interatomic Distances in Halides and Chalcogenides." Acta Crystallographica Section A, volume 32, number 5, 1976, pp. 751–767. doi:10.1107/S0567739476001551

Shur, Michael. Physics of Semiconductor Devices. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1990.

Silbey, Robert J., Robert A. Alberty, and Moungi G. Bawendi. Physical Chemistry, 4th edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.

Slater, J. C. "Atomic Radii in Crystals." The Journal of Chemical Physics, volume 41, number 10, 1964, pp. 3199–3204. doi:10.1063/1.1725697

Smith, Derek W. "Electronegativity in Two Dimensions: Reassessment and Resolution of the Pearson-Pauling Paradox." Journal of Chemical Education, volume 67, number 11, 1990, pp. 911–914. doi:10.1021/ed067p911

Smith, Derek W. Inorganic Substances: A Prelude to the Study of Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Stewart, G. R. "Measurement of Low-Temperature Specific Heat." Review of Scientific Instruments, volume 54, number 1, 1983, pp. 1–11. doi:10.1063/1.1137207

Straumanis, M. E., and E. Z. Aka. "Lattice Parameters, Coefficients of Thermal Expansion, and Atomic Weights of Purest Silicon and Germanium." Journal of Applied Physics, volume 23, number 3, 1952, pp. 330–334. doi:10.1063/1.1702202

Tari, A. The Specific Heat of Matter at Low Temperatures. London: Imperial College Press, 2003.

Turkevich, Anthony L. "The Average Chemical Composition of the Lunar Surface." pp. 1159–1168 in Proceedings of the Fourth Lunar Science Conference, volume 2. Houston, TX, March 5–8, 1973. Edited by W. A. Gose. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1973.

U. S. Department of Transportation (DOT), Transport Canada (TC), Secretariat of Transport and Communications of Mexico (SCT), and Centro de Información Química para Emergencias (CIQUIME). 2008 Emergency Response Guidebook.

Vainshtein, Boris K., Vladimir M. Fridkin, and Vladimir L. Indenbom. Structure of Crystals, 2nd edition. Modern Crystallography 2. Edited by Boris K. Vainshtein, A. A. Chernov, and L. A. Shuvalov. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1995.

Voigt, H. H., editor. Landolt–Börnstein—Group VI Astronomy and Astrophysics. Berlin: Springer–Verlag, 1993.

Waber, J. T., and Don T. Cromer. "Orbital Radii of Atoms and Ions." Journal of Chemical Physics, volume 42, number 12, 1965, pp. 4116–4123. doi:10.1063/1.1695904

Waldron, Kimberley A., Erin M. Fehringer, Amy E. Streeb, Jennifer E. Trosky, and Joshua J. Pearson. "Screening Percentages Based on Slater Effective Nuclear Charge as a Versatile Tool for Teaching Periodic Trends." Journal of Chemical Education, volume 78, number 5, 2001, pp. 635–639. doi:10.1021/ed078p635

Watanabe, Hiromichi, Naofumi Yamada, and Masahiro Okaji. "Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Silicon from 293 to 1000 K." International Journal of Thermophysics, volume 25, number 1, 2004, pp. 221–236. doi:10.1023/B:IJOT.0000022336.83719.43

Weeks, Mary Elvira, and Henry M. Leicester. Discovery of the Elements, 7th edition. Easton, PA: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968.

Wieser, Michael E., and Tyler B. Coplen. "Atomic weights of the elements 2009 (IUPAC Technical Report)." Pure and Applied Chemistry, volume 83, number 2, 2011, pp. 359–396. doi:10.1351/PAC-REP-10-09-14

Yaws, Carl L. The Yaws Handbook of Physical Properties for Hydrocarbons and Chemicals. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company, 2005.