Plutonium

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Plutonium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Pu

Atomic Number

94

Oxidation States

7

less common

6

less common

5

less common

4

more common

3

less common

2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

1.28

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Rn] 5f6 7s2

[Rn] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of radon

Orbital Filling Order

[Rn] 7s2 5f6

[Rn] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of radon

Term Symbol

7F0

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I  (1)

 6.0260 eV

II (2)

11.2 eV   

Density

solid, 25 °C

19.700 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

12.29 cm3/mol

Melting Point

913 ± 2 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

3501.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

350 K, polycrystalline

7.90 W/(m K)

300 K, polycrystalline

6.74 W/(m K)

298.2 K, polycrystalline

6.70 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

6.16 W/(m K)

200 K, polycrystalline

4.76 W/(m K)

see all 14 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

172 pm

double bond

135 pm

Atomic Radius

151 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

2.8 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

343.5 kJ/mol

Quantity

Plutonium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I  (1)

 6.0260 eV

II (2)

11.2 eV   

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

121791 ± 2 eV

LI   (2s)

 23104 ± 5 eV

LII  (2p1/2)

 22266 ± 1 eV

LIII (2p3/2)

 18057 ± 1 eV

see all 24 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Rn] 5f6 7s2

[Rn] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of radon

Orbital Filling Order

[Rn] 7s2 5f6

[Rn] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of radon

Term Symbol

7F0

see expanded configuration ...

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.971

ωL1

0.21 

ωL2

0.473

ωL3

0.463

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.03

F13

0.68

F23

0.23

Quantity

Plutonium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

solid, 25 °C

19.700 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

12.29 cm3/mol

Physical Form

silvery-white metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

46.7×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

α-plutonium, solid, 293 K

2240 m/s to 2280 m/s

calculated value

Young's Modulus

87.5 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.180

Electrical Resistivity

solid, 295 K

143×10-8 Ohm m

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

54 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.019 GPa-1

Quantity

Plutonium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

7

less common

6

less common

5

less common

4

more common

3

less common

2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

1.28

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

1.22

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.28

Nagle Electronegativity

1.09

Cohesive Energy

per mole

347 kJ/mol    

per atom

  3.60 eV/atom

Quantity

Plutonium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

913 ± 2 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

3501.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

350 K, polycrystalline

7.90 W/(m K)

300 K, polycrystalline

6.74 W/(m K)

298.2 K, polycrystalline

6.70 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

6.16 W/(m K)

200 K, polycrystalline

4.76 W/(m K)

see all 14 conductivities ...

Critical Point

11140 K

Vapor Pressure

3226 °C

100 kPa

2653 °C

10 kPa

2238 °C

1 kPa

1925 °C

100 Pa

1680 °C

10 Pa

1483 °C

1 Pa

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

2.8 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

343.5 kJ/mol

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

25 ± 1 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

176 K

α-plutonium, Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

206 K

Quantity

Plutonium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-07-5

Quantity

Plutonium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

151 pm

Orbital Radius

178.4 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

172 pm

double bond

135 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

187 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6

114 pm

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 6

100 pm

coordination number: 8

110 pm

ion charge: +5, coordination number: 6

 88 pm

ion charge: +6, coordination number: 6

 85 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6

100 pm

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 6

 86 pm

coordination number: 8

 96 pm

ion charge: +5, coordination number: 6

 74 pm

ion charge: +6, coordination number: 6

 71 pm

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +4

 93 pm

ion charge: +3

107 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

175 pm

Quantity

Plutonium Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-plutonium

symbol

αPu

allotrope

β-plutonium

symbol

βPu

allotrope

γ-plutonium

symbol

γPu

allotrope

δ-plutonium

symbol

δPu

allotrope

δ'-plutonium

symbol

δ'Pu

allotrope

ε-plutonium

symbol

εPu

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

3.1×102 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

4.26×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Plutonium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1940

discoverer

Glenn Theodore Seaborg

birth

April 19, 1912

death

February 25, 1999

discoverer

Edwin Mattison McMillan

birth

September 18, 1907

death

September 7, 1991

discoverer

Joseph W. Kennedy

birth

May 30, 1916

death

May 5, 1957

discoverer

Arthur C. Wahl

birth

September 8, 1917

death

March 6, 2006

location of discovery

Berkeley, California

Origin of Element Name

origin

Pluto

origin description

celestial body—Planet (In 2006 Pluto was reclassified as a dwarf planet.)

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Pu

origin

plutonium

origin description

element name

Quantity

Plutonium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

plutonium

German

Plutonium

Italian

plutonio

Spanish

plutonio

Portuguese

plutónio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

plutonide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

plutonium

Ligands

plutonido

Heteroatomic Anion

plutonate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

plutona

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

plutony

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

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