Samarium

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Samarium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Sm

Atomic Number

62

Atomic Weight

Rounded

150.4

for regular calculations

Standard

150.36 ± 0.02

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

3

more common

2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

1.17

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f6 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f6

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

7F0

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 5.6437 eV   

II  (2)

11.07 eV     

III (3)

23.4 ± 0.3 eV

IV  (4)

41.4 ± 0.7 eV

Density

liquid, 1347.15 K

7.160 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

7.520 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

19.98 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1346 ± 5 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

2067.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

13.3 W/(m K)

300 K, polycrystalline

13.3 W/(m K)

298.2 K, polycrystalline

13.3 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

13.3 W/(m K)

200 K, polycrystalline

11.3 W/(m K)

see all 29 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

172 pm

double bond

134 pm

Atomic Radius

180 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

10.9 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

191.6 kJ/mol

Quantity

Samarium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 5.6437 eV   

II  (2)

11.07 eV     

III (3)

23.4 ± 0.3 eV

IV  (4)

41.4 ± 0.7 eV

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

46834 eV  

LI   (2s)

 7737 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

 7312 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

 6716 eV  

see all 19 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f6 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f6

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

7F0

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

60.7783

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

60.7783

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

22.8674

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

45.7348

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 13 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

92.3%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.926

ωL1

0.075

ωL2

0.155

ωL3

0.15 

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.19 

F13

0.25 

F23

0.154

Quantity

Samarium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 1347.15 K

7.160 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

7.520 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

150.4 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

150.36 ± 0.02 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

19.98 cm3/mol

Physical Form

silvery metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

12.7×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

solid, 293 K

2130 m/s

calculated value

Young's Modulus

α-samarium

49.7 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

α-samarium

0.274

Electrical Resistivity

solid, 295 K

99×10-8 Ohm m

Thermionic Work Function

3.2 eV

Vickers Hardness

cast, 293 K

412 MN/m2

annealed, 293 K

441 MN/m2

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

29.4 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.0340 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

20 cm3

Quantity

Samarium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

3

more common

2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

1.17

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

1.07

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.17

Nagle Electronegativity

1.05

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

1.1

oxidation state: 2

0.95

Cohesive Energy

per mole

206 kJ/mol    

per atom

  2.14 eV/atom

Quantity

Samarium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1346 ± 5 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

2067.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

13.3 W/(m K)

300 K, polycrystalline

13.3 W/(m K)

298.2 K, polycrystalline

13.3 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

13.3 W/(m K)

200 K, polycrystalline

11.3 W/(m K)

see all 29 conductivities ...

Critical Point

5440 K

Vapor Pressure

1788 °C

100 kPa

1402 °C

10 kPa

1148 °C

1 kPa

967 °C

100 Pa

833 °C

10 Pa

728 °C

1 Pa

Neel Point

13.3 K

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

10.9 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

191.6 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

29.54 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.197 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

13.5 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

169 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

184 K

Quantity

Samarium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-19-9

Quantity

Samarium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

180 pm

Orbital Radius

185.4 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

172 pm

double bond

134 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

198 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 7

136 pm  

coordination number: 8

141 pm  

coordination number: 9

146 pm  

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 6

109.8 pm

coordination number: 7

116 pm  

coordination number: 8

121.9 pm

coordination number: 9

127.2 pm

coordination number: 12

138 pm  

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 7

122 pm  

coordination number: 8

127 pm  

coordination number: 9

132 pm  

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 6

 95.8 pm

coordination number: 7

102 pm  

coordination number: 8

107.9 pm

coordination number: 9

113.2 pm

coordination number: 12

124 pm  

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

104 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

185 pm

Quantity

Samarium Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-samarium

symbol

αSm

allotrope

β-samarium

symbol

βSm

allotrope

γ-samarium

symbol

γSm

alternate symbol

γ'Sm

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

359 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

3.03×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Samarium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1879

discoverer

Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran

birth

April 18, 1838

death

May 28, 1912

location of discovery

Paris, France

Origin of Element Name

origin

samarskite

origin description

mineral

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Sm

origin

samarium

origin description

element name

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

symbol

Sa

Quantity

Samarium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

7.05 ppm

Earth's Mantle

431 ppb

primitive mantle

Bulk Earth

0.27 ppm

Ocean Water

4.5×10-7 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

18.6 ppm

Ridge

5 ppm

U.S. Coal

1.7 ppm

Ferns

0.1 ppm to 0.8 ppm

Solar System

0.2582

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

1.01 ± 0.06

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

0.98 ± 0.02

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Samarium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

samarium

German

Samarium

Italian

samario

Spanish

samario

Portuguese

samário

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

samaride

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

samarium

Ligands

samarido

Heteroatomic Anion

samarate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

samara

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

samary

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

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