Praseodymium

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Praseodymium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Pr

Atomic Number

59

Atomic Weight

Rounded

140.9

for regular calculations

Standard

140.90765 ± 0.00002

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

4

less common

3

more common

2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

1.13

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f3 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f3

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

4I9/2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 5.473 eV        

II  (2)

10.55 eV         

III (3)

21.624 ± 0.003 eV

IV  (4)

38.98 ± 0.02 eV  

V   (5)

57.53 ± 0.05 eV  

Electron Affinity

0.962 ± 0.024 eV

Density

liquid, 1204.15 K

6.590 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

6.770 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

20.80 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1208 ± 3 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

3793.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

13.6 W/(m K)

extrapolated

300 K, polycrystalline

12.5 W/(m K)

298.2 K, polycrystalline

12.5 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

12.0 W/(m K)

200 K, polycrystalline

10.6 W/(m K)

see all 28 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

176 pm

double bond

138 pm

triple bond

128 pm

Atomic Radius

182 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

11.3 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

332.6 kJ/mol

Quantity

Praseodymium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 5.473 eV        

II  (2)

10.55 eV         

III (3)

21.624 ± 0.003 eV

IV  (4)

38.98 ± 0.02 eV  

V   (5)

57.53 ± 0.05 eV  

Electron Affinity

0.962 ± 0.024 eV

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

41991 eV  

LI   (2s)

 6835 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

 6440 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

 5964 eV  

see all 19 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f3 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f3

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

4I9/2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

57.8306

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

57.8306

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

21.7310

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

43.4620

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 13 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

93.5%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.914

ωL1

0.061

ωL2

0.117

ωL3

0.118

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.19 

F13

0.25 

F23

0.158

Quantity

Praseodymium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 1204.15 K

6.590 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

6.770 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

140.9 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

140.90765 ± 0.00002 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

20.80 cm3/mol

Physical Form

silvery metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

6.7×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

α-praseodymium, solid, 293 K

2280 m/s

calculated value

Young's Modulus

α-praseodymium

37.3 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

α-praseodymium

0.281

Electrical Resistivity

solid, 295 K

67×10-8 Ohm m

Thermionic Work Function

2.7 eV

Vickers Hardness

cast, 293 K

363 MN/m2 to 422 MN/m2

forged, 293 K

746 MN/m2

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

30.6 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.0327 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

21 cm3

Quantity

Praseodymium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

4

less common

3

more common

2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

1.13

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

1.07

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.13

Nagle Electronegativity

1.06

Cohesive Energy

per mole

357 kJ/mol    

per atom

  3.70 eV/atom

Quantity

Praseodymium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1208 ± 3 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

3793.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

13.6 W/(m K)

extrapolated

300 K, polycrystalline

12.5 W/(m K)

298.2 K, polycrystalline

12.5 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

12.0 W/(m K)

200 K, polycrystalline

10.6 W/(m K)

see all 28 conductivities ...

Critical Point

8900 K

Vapor Pressure

3506 °C

100 kPa

2781 °C

10 kPa

2298 °C

1 kPa

1954 °C

100 Pa

1699.4 °C

10 Pa

1497.7 °C

1 Pa

Neel Point

polycrystalline

25 K

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

11.3 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

332.6 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

27.20 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.193 J/(g K)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

152 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

138 K

Quantity

Praseodymium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-10-0

Quantity

Praseodymium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

182 pm

Orbital Radius

194.2 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

176 pm

double bond

138 pm

triple bond

128 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

203 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 6

113 pm  

coordination number: 8

126.6 pm

coordination number: 9

131.9 pm

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 6

 99 pm  

coordination number: 8

110 pm  

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 6

 99 pm  

coordination number: 8

112.6 pm

coordination number: 9

117.9 pm

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 6

 85 pm  

coordination number: 8

 96 pm  

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +4

 92 pm

ion charge: +3

109 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

185 pm

Quantity

Praseodymium Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-praseodymium

symbol

αPr

allotrope

β-praseodymium

symbol

βPr

allotrope

γ-praseodymium

symbol

γPr

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

363 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

2.92×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Praseodymium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1885

discoverer

Baron Auer von Welsbach

birth

September 1, 1858

death

August 4, 1929

location of discovery

Vienna, Austria

Origin of Element Name

origin

prasios didymos

origin description

color—Greek for green twin

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Pr

origin

praseodymium

origin description

element name

Quantity

Praseodymium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

9.2 ppm

Earth's Mantle

270 ppb

primitive mantle

Bulk Earth

0.17 ppm

Ocean Water

6×10-7 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

19.3 ppm

U.S. Coal

2.4 ppm

estimated from USGS and literature data

Solar System

0.1669

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

0.71 ± 0.08

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

0.80 ± 0.04

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Praseodymium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

praséodyme

German

Praseodym

Italian

praseodimio

Spanish

praseodimio

Portuguese

praseodímio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

praseodymide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

praseodymium

Ligands

praseodymido

Heteroatomic Anion

praseodymate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

praseodyma

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

praseodymy

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

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