Cadmium

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Cadmium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Cd

Atomic Number

48

Atomic Weight

Rounded

112.4

for regular calculations

Standard

112.411 ± 0.008

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

2

more common

1

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.69

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Kr] 4d10 5s2

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Orbital Filling Order

[Kr] 5s2 4d10

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Term Symbol

1S0

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 8.99382 eV

II  (2)

16.90831 eV

III (3)

37.48 eV   

Electron Affinity

<0 eV

<0 cm-1

Density

liquid, 594.05 K

8.017 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

8.690 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

13.00 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 atm

594.219 K

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point (freezing point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

1040.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

300 K

polycrystalline

 96.8 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

 83.0 W/(m K)

perpendicular to c-axis

104 W/(m K)  

273.2 K

polycrystalline

 97.5 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

 83.5 W/(m K)

perpendicular to c-axis

104 W/(m K)  

see all 47 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

136 pm

double bond

144 pm

Atomic Radius

152 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

6.11 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

99.87 kJ/mol

Quantity

Cadmium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 8.99382 eV

II  (2)

16.90831 eV

III (3)

37.48 eV   

Electron Affinity

<0 eV

<0 cm-1

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

26711 eV  

LI   (2s)

 4018 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

 3727 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

 3538 eV  

see all 14 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Kr] 4d10 5s2

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Orbital Filling Order

[Kr] 5s2 4d10

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Term Symbol

1S0

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

47.0256

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

47.0256

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

17.6929

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

35.3858

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 10 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

83.6%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.842

ωL1

0.018

ωL2

0.056

ωL3

0.056

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.10 

F13

0.45 

F23

0.143

Quantity

Cadmium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 594.05 K

8.017 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

8.690 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

112.4 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

112.411 ± 0.008 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

13.00 cm3/mol

Physical Form

silvery-white metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

30.8×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

liquid, 360 °C, longitudinal wave

2150 m/s

solid

298 K

2310 m/s

20 °C, longitudinal wave

2780 m/s

Specific Gravity

68 °F, water at 4 °C (39.2 °F)

8.65

Young's Modulus

62.6 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.300

Electrical Resistivity

solid, 295 K

7.27×10-8 Ohm m

Contact Potential

2 eV

Photoelectric Work Function

4.0 eV

Thermionic Work Function

4.07 eV

Superconducting Transition Temperature

0.517 ± 0.002 K

single crystal, 99.999% purity

0.515 ± 0.002 K

Superconducting Critical Magnetic Field at Absolute Zero

30×10-4 T

Superconducting Energy Gap

0 K

1.5×10-4 eV

Mineralogical Hardness

2.0

Reflectivity

surface polished

1.0 μm

67%

2.0 μm

72%

4.0 μm

81%

see all 6 reflectivities ...

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

46.7 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.0214 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

13 cm3

Quantity

Cadmium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

2

more common

1

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.69

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2, hybridsp

1.53

Sanderson Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.98

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.46

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

8.995 eV

Pauling units

1.52    

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.69

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

3.7958 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

1.45

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

4.33 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.65

Free Electron Fermi Surface Parameters

300 K

electron concentration

9.28×1022 cm-3

radius parameter

2.59

fermi wavevector

1.40×108 cm-1

fermi velocity

1.62×108 cm/s

fermi energy

7.46 eV

fermi temperature

8.66×104 K

Chemical Hardness

4.66 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

112 kJ/mol    

per atom

  1.16 eV/atom

Quantity

Cadmium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 atm

594.219 K

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point (freezing point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

1040.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

300 K

polycrystalline

 96.8 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

 83.0 W/(m K)

perpendicular to c-axis

104 W/(m K)  

273.2 K

polycrystalline

 97.5 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

 83.5 W/(m K)

perpendicular to c-axis

104 W/(m K)  

see all 47 conductivities ...

Critical Point

2960 K

Vapor Pressure

767 °C

100 kPa

594 °C

10 kPa

472 °C

1 kPa

see all 16 pressures ...

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

6.11 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

99.87 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

26.020 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.232 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

0.687 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

210 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

221 K

Quantity

Cadmium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-43-9

DOT Number

cadmium compound

2570

ICSC Number

0020

RTECS Number

EU9800000

UN Number

2570

Quantity

Cadmium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

152 pm

Orbital Radius

118.4 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

136 pm

double bond

144 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

144 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 4

 92 pm

coordination number: 5

101 pm

coordination number: 6

109 pm

coordination number: 7

117 pm

coordination number: 8

124 pm

coordination number: 12

145 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 4

 78 pm

coordination number: 5

 87 pm

coordination number: 6

 95 pm

coordination number: 7

103 pm

coordination number: 8

110 pm

coordination number: 12

131 pm

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +2

97 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

114 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

2.2×102 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

237 pm

Bondi Van Der Waals Radius

162 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

155 pm

Quantity

Cadmium Crystal Structure

Notes

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

298 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

4.64×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Cadmium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1817

discoverer

Friedrich Stromeyer

birth

August 2, 1776

death

August 18, 1835

location of discovery

Göttingen, Germany

Origin of Element Name

origin

cadmia

origin description

mineral—Latin for calamine

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Cd

origin

cadmium

origin description

element name

Quantity

Cadmium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

1.5×10-1 ppm

Earth's Mantle

64 ppb

primitive mantle

Earth's Core

0.15 ppm

Bulk Earth

0.08 ppm

Ocean Water

5×10-5 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

0.4 ppm

Ridge

4 ppm

U.S. Coal

0.47 ppm

Human Body

50 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

1.8 ppm

Human Hair

0.24 ppm to 2.7 ppm

Human Kidney

18 ppm to 310 ppm

Human Liver

2 ppm to 22 ppm

Human Muscle

0.14 ppm to 3.2 ppm

Human Nail

0.08 ppm to 3.4 ppm

Bacteria

0.31 ppm

Ferns

0.13 ppm

Fungi

0.1 ppm to 75 ppm

Solar System

1.61

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

1.77 ± 0.11

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

1.75 ± 0.04

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Cadmium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

cadmium

German

Cadmium

Italian

cadmio

Spanish

cadmio

Portuguese

cádmio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

cadmide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

cadmium (general)

Cd2+, cadmium(2+)

Ligands

cadmido

Heteroatomic Anion

cadmate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

cadma

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

cadmy

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