Antimony

Antimony Navigation

Other Elements

By Name

By Symbol

By Number

Solutions manuals and the Numerari scientific calculator from KnowledgeDoor Learn more about our solutions manuals Learn more about Numerari

Quantity

Antimony Quick Reference

Click button to see citations

Notes

Symbol

Sb

Atomic Number

51

Atomic Weight

Rounded

121.8

for regular calculations

Standard

121.760 ± 0.001

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

 5

less common with disagreement

 3

more common with disagreement

-3

less common with disagreement

Pauling Electronegativity

2.05

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Orbital Filling Order

[Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p3

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Term Symbol

4S3/2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 8.60839 eV

II  (2)

16.63 eV   

III (3)

25.3 eV    

IV  (4)

44.2 eV    

see all 6 energies ...

Electron Affinity

1.047401 ± 0.000020 eV

 8447.86 ± 0.15 cm-1  

Density

liquid, 903.78 K

6.491 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

6.680 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

18.19 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 atm

903.778 K

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point (freezing point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

1860.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

21.3 W/(m K)

300 K, polycrystalline

24.3 W/(m K)

298.2 K, polycrystalline

24.4 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

25.5 W/(m K)

200 K, polycrystalline

30.2 W/(m K)

see all 58 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

140 pm

double bond

133 pm

triple bond

127 pm

Atomic Radius

161 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

20.9 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

67.91 kJ/mol

Quantity

Antimony Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 8.60839 eV

II  (2)

16.63 eV   

III (3)

25.3 eV    

IV  (4)

44.2 eV    

see all 6 energies ...

Electron Affinity

1.047401 ± 0.000020 eV

 8447.86 ± 0.15 cm-1  

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

30491 eV  

LI   (2s)

 4698 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

 4380 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

 4132 eV  

see all 14 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Orbital Filling Order

[Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p3

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Term Symbol

4S3/2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

49.9744

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

49.9744

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

18.7977

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

37.5954

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 11 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

80.8%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.868

ωL1

0.039

ωL2

0.069

ωL3

0.069

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.17 

F13

0.25 

F23

0.151

Quantity

Antimony Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 903.78 K

6.491 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

6.680 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

121.8 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

121.760 ± 0.001 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

18.19 cm3/mol

Physical Form

silvery metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

11.0×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

solid, 293 K

3420 m/s

calculated value

Specific Gravity

68 °F, water at 4 °C (39.2 °F)

6.69

Young's Modulus

54.7 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.250

Electrical Resistivity

solid, 295 K

41.3×10-8 Ohm m

Contact Potential

4.14 eV

Photoelectric Work Function

4.01 eV

Superconducting Transition Temperature

25 GPa

3.9 K

maximum temperature

Mineralogical Hardness

3.0

Reflectivity

surface polished

0.6 μm

53%

1.0 μm

55%

2.0 μm

60%

see all 6 reflectivities ...

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

38.3 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.0261 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

18 cm3

Quantity

Antimony Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

 5

less common with disagreement

 3

more common with disagreement

-3

less common with disagreement

Pauling Electronegativity

2.05

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity

hybridsp3

2.22

hybrid20% s

2.12

orbitalp

1.67

Sanderson Electronegativity

2.458

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

1.82

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

11.74 eV

Pauling units

 1.984  

Allen Electronegativity

1.984

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

2.05

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

5.0203 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

1.88

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

4.85 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 5

2.1

oxidation state: 3

1.9

Chemical Hardness

3.80 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

265 kJ/mol    

per atom

  2.75 eV/atom

Quantity

Antimony Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 atm

903.778 K

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point (freezing point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

1860.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

21.3 W/(m K)

300 K, polycrystalline

24.3 W/(m K)

298.2 K, polycrystalline

24.4 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

25.5 W/(m K)

200 K, polycrystalline

30.2 W/(m K)

see all 58 conductivities ...

Critical Point

5070 K

Vapor Pressure

1585 °C

100 kPa

1218 °C

10 kPa

946 °C

1 kPa

738 °C

100 Pa

603 °C

10 Pa

534 °C

1 Pa

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

20.9 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

67.91 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

25.23 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.207 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

0.119 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

220 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

200 K

Quantity

Antimony Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-36-0

gray antimony

7440-36-0

black antimony

7440-36-0

DOT Number

powder

2871

ICSC Number

0775

RTECS Number

CC4025000

UN Number

2871

Quantity

Antimony Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

161 pm

Orbital Radius

119.3 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

140 pm

double bond

133 pm

triple bond

127 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

139 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 4, pyramidal

90 pm

coordination number: 5

94 pm

coordination number: 6

90 pm

ion charge: +5, coordination number: 6

74 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 4, pyramidal

76 pm

coordination number: 5

80 pm

coordination number: 6

76 pm

ion charge: +5, coordination number: 6

60 pm

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +5

 62 pm

ion charge: -3

245 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

 89 pm

ion charge: -1

295 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

2.2×102 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

241 pm

Pauling Van Der Waals Radius

2.2×102 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

145 pm

Quantity

Antimony Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

gray antimony

alternate name

grey antimony

alternate name

metallic antimony

alternate name

ordinary antimony

alternate name

rhombohedral antimony

alternate name

α-antimony

symbol

αSb

alternate symbol

Sb-I

allotrope

yellow antimony

allotrope

black antimony

allotrope

β-antimony

symbol

βSb

alternate symbol

Sb-II

allotrope

γ-antimony

symbol

γSb

alternate symbol

Sb-III

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

291 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

3.31×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Antimony History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

circa 1600 BC

discoverer

unknown

location of discovery

unknown

Origin of Element Name

origin

anti monos

origin description

property—Greek for not alone

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Sb

origin

stibium

origin description

word—Latin for antimony sulfide (ancient name)

U.S. Towns Named After Elements

Antimony, Utah

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

symbol

St

Quantity

Antimony Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

2×10-1 ppm

Earth's Mantle

12 ppb

primitive mantle

Earth's Core

0.13 ppm

Bulk Earth

0.05 ppm

Ocean Water

0.0002 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

17 ppm

River Water

0.001 ppm

U.S. Coal

1.2 ppm

Human Body

2 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

0.01 ppm to 0.6 ppm

Human Hair

0.09 ppm to 3 ppm

Human Kidney

0.026 ppm to 0.22 ppm

Human Liver

0.011 ppm to 0.42 ppm

Human Muscle

0.042 ppm to 0.19 ppm

Fungi

0.05 ppm

Solar System

0.309

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

1.0 ± 0.3

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

1.01 ± 0.04

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Antimony Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

antimoine

German

Antimon

Italian

antimonio

Spanish

antimonio

Portuguese

antimónio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

antimonide (general)

Sb3-, antimonide(3-), stibanetriide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

antimony

Ligands

antimonido (general)

Sb3-, antimonido, stibanetriido

Heteroatomic Anion

antimonate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

stiba

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

stiby

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

Albright, Thomas A., and Jeremy K. Burdett. Problems in Molecular Orbital Theory. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Allen, Leland C. "Electronegativity Is the Average One-Electron Energy of the Valence-Shell Electrons in Ground-State Free Atoms." Journal of the American Chemical Society, volume 111, number 25, 1989, pp. 9003–9014. doi:10.1021/ja00207a003

Allred, A. L. "Electronegativity Values from Thermochemical Data." Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, volume 17, number 3-4, 1961, pp. 215–221. doi:10.1016/0022-1902(61)80142-5

Allred, A. L., and E. G. Rochow. "A Scale of Electronegativity Based on Electrostatic Force." Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, volume 5, number 4, 1958, pp. 264–268. doi:10.1016/0022-1902(58)80003-2

Anders, Edward, and Nicolas Grevesse. "Abundances of the Elements: Meteoritic and Solar." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, volume 53, number 1, 1989, pp. 197–214. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(89)90286-X

Andersen, T., H. K. Haugen, and H. Hotop. "Binding Energies in Atomic Negative Ions: III." Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, volume 28, number 6, 1999, pp. 1511–1533.

Ball, David W. "Elemental Etymology: What's in a Name?" Journal of Chemical Education, volume 62, number 9, 1985, pp. 787–788. doi:10.1021/ed062p787

Barsan, Michael E., editor. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. Cincinnati, Ohio: NIOSH Publications, 2007.

Batsanov, S. S. "Van der Waals Radii of Elements." Inorganic Materials, volume 37, number 9, 2001, pp. 871–885. See abstract

Bedford, R. E., G. Bonnier, H. Maas, and F. Pavese. "Recommended Values of Temperature on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 for a Selected Set of Secondary Reference Points." Metrologia, volume 33, number 2, 1996, pp. 133–154. doi:10.1088/0026-1394/33/2/3

Bowen, H. J. M. Environmental Chemistry of the Elements. London: Academic Press, Inc., 1979.

Bratsch, Steven G. "Revised Mulliken Electronegativities: I. Calculation and Conversion to Pauling Units." Journal of Chemical Education, volume 65, number 1, 1988, pp. 34–41. doi:10.1021/ed065p34

Campbell, J. L. "Fluorescence Yields and Coster–Kronig Probabilities for the Atomic L Subshells." Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, volume 85, number 2, 2003, pp. 291–315. doi:10.1016/S0092-640X(03)00059-7

Cardarelli, François. Materials Handbook: A Concise Desktop Reference, 2nd edition. London: Springer–Verlag, 2008.

Clementi, E., D. L. Raimondi, and W. P. Reinhardt. "Atomic Screening Constants from SCF Functions. II. Atoms with 37 to 86 Electrons." Journal of Chemical Physics, volume 47, number 4, 1967, pp. 1300–1307. doi:10.1063/1.1712084

Cohen, E. Richard, David R. Lide, and George L. Trigg, editors. AlP Physics Desk Reference, 3rd edition. New York: Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 2003.

Connelly, Neil G., Ture Damhus, Richard M. Hartshorn, and Alan T. Hutton. Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry: IUPAC Recommendations 2005. Cambridge: RSC Publishing, 2005.

Cordero, Beatriz, Verónica Gómez, Ana E. Platero-Prats, Marc Revés, Jorge Echeverría, Eduard Cremades, Flavia Barragán, and Santiago Alvarez. "Covalent Radii Revisited." Dalton Transactions, number 21, 2008, pp 2832–2838. doi:10.1039/b801115j

de Podesta, Michael. Understanding the Properties of Matter, 2nd edition. London: Taylor & Francis, 2002.

Debessai, M., J. J. Hamlin, and J. S. Schilling. "Comparison of the Pressure Dependences of Tc in the Trivalent d-Electron Superconductors Sc, Y, La, and Lu up to Megabar Pressures." Physical Review B, volume 78, number 6, 2008, pp. 064519–1 to 064519–10. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.78.064519

Donohue, Jerry. The Structures Of The Elements, 2nd edition. Malabar, Florida: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company, 1974.

Dronskowski, Richard. Computational Chemistry of Solid State Materials. Weinheim, Germany: WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2005.

Ebbing, Darrell D., and Steven D. Gammon. General Chemistry, 8th edition. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005.

Emsley, John. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Emsley, John. The Elements, 3rd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Firestone, Richard B. Table of Isotopes, 8th edition, volume 2. Edited by Virginia S. Shirley, with assistant editors Coral M. Baglin, S. Y. Frank Chu, and Jean Zipkin. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996.

Galasso, Francis S. Structure and Properties of Inorganic Solids. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1970.

Ghosh, Dulal C., and Kartick Gupta. "A New Scale Of Electronegativity Of 54 Elements Of Periodic Table Based On Polarizability Of Atoms." Journal of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, volume 5, number 4, 2006, pp. 895–911. doi:10.1142/S0219633606002726

Greenwood, N. N., and A. Earnshaw. Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997.

Gwyn Williams. Electron Binding Energies. http://www.jlab.org/~gwyn/ebindene.html. Accessed on April 30, 2010.

Ho, C. Y., R. W. Powell, and P. E. Liley. "Thermal Conductivity of the Elements: A Comprehensive Review." Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, volume 3, supplement 1, 1974, pp. I–1 to I–796.

Horvath, A. L. "Critical Temperature of Elements and the Periodic System." Journal of Chemical Education, volume 50, number 5, 1973, pp. 335–336. doi:10.1021/ed050p335

Huheey, James E., Ellen A. Keiter, and Richard L Keiter. Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th edition. New York: HarperCollins College Publishers, 1993.

International Labour Organization (ILO). International Chemical Safety Card for Antimony. http://www.ilo.org/legacy/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc07/icsc0775.htm. Accessed on May 5, 2010.

International Labour Organization (ILO). International Chemical Safety Card for Antimony. http://www.ilo.org/legacy/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc07/icsc0775.htm. Accessed on May 4, 2010.

King, H. W. "Pressure-Dependent Allotropic Structures of the Elements." Bulletin of Alloy Phase Diagrams, volume 4, number 4, 1983, pp. 449–450. doi:10.1007/BF02868110

Kittel, Charles. Introduction to Solid State Physics, 8th edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2005.

Krause, M. O. "Atomic Radiative and Radiationless Yields for K and L Shells." Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, volume 8, number 2, 1979, pp. 307–327.

Li, Y.-H., and J. E. Schoonmaker. "Chemical Composition and Mineralogy of Marine Sediments." pp. 1–36 in Sediments, Diagenesis, and Sedimentary Rocks. Edited by Fred T. Mackenzie. Oxford: Elsevier Ltd., 2005.

Liboff, Richard L. Introductory Quantum Mechanics, 3rd edition. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 1998.

Lide, David R., editor. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 88th edition. Boca Raton, Florida: Taylor & Francis Group, 2008.

Madelung, O., U. Rössler, and M. Schulz, editors. Non-Tetrahedrally Bonded Elements and Binary Compounds I. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1998. doi:10.1007/b71138

Mann, Joseph B., Terry L. Meek, and Leland C. Allen. "Configuration Energies of the Main Group Elements." Journal of the American Chemical Society, volume 122, number 12, 2000, pp. 2780–2783. doi:10.1021/ja992866e

Manuel, O., editor. Origin of Elements in the Solar System: Implications of Post-1957 Observations. New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.

Martin, W. C. "Electronic Structure of the Elements." The European Physical Journal C — Particles and Fields, volume 15, number 1–4, 2000, pp. 78–79. doi:10.1007/BF02683401

McDonough, W. F. "Compositional Model for the Earth's Core." pp. 547–568 in The Mantle and Core. Edited by Richard W. Carlson. Oxford: Elsevier Ltd., 2005.

Mechtly, Eugene A. "Properties of Materials." pp. 4–1 to 4–33 in Reference Data For Engineers: Radio, Electronics, Computer, and Communications. By Mac E. Van Valkenburg, edited by Wendy M. Middleton. Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002. doi:10.1016/B978-075067291-7/50006-6

Miessler, Gary L., and Donald A. Tarr. Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.

Moore, Charlotte E. Ionization Potentials and Ionization Limits Derived from the Analyses of Optical Spectra. Washington, D.C.: National Bureau of Standards, 1970.

Nagle, Jeffrey K. "Atomic Polarizability and Electronegativity." Journal of the American Chemical Society, volume 112, number 12, 1990, pp. 4741–4747. doi:10.1021/ja00168a019

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). International Chemical Safety Card for Antimony. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsneng/neng0775.html. Accessed on May 5, 2010.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). International Chemical Safety Card for Antimony. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsneng/neng0775.html. Accessed on May 4, 2010.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances for Antimony. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh-rtecs/cc3d6aa8.html. Accessed on May 5, 2010.

Nicholas, J. V., and D. R. White. "Temperature." pp. 8–41 in Measurement of the Thermodynamic Properties of Single Phases. Edited by A. R. H. Goodwin, W. A. Wakeham, and K. N. Marsh. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 2003.

Orem, W. H., and R. B. Finkelman. "Coal Formation and Geochemistry." pp. 191–222 in Sediments, Diagenesis, and Sedimentary Rocks. Edited by Fred T. Mackenzie. Oxford: Elsevier Ltd., 2005.

Oxtoby, David W., H. P. Gillis, and Alan Campion. Principles of Modern Chemistry, 6th edition. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2008.

Palme, H., and H. Beer. "Meteorites and the Composition of the Solar Photosphere." pp. 204–206 in Landolt–Börnstein—Group VI: Astronomy and Astrophysics. Edited by H. H. Voigt. New York: Springer–Verlag, 1993. doi:10.1007/10057790_59

Palme, H., and Hugh St. C. O'Neill. "Cosmochemical Estimates of Mantle Composition." pp. 1–38 in The Mantle and Core. Edited by Richard W. Carlson. Oxford: Elsevier Ltd., 2005.

Pauling, Linus. The Nature of the Chemical Bond, 3rd edition. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1960.

Pearson, Ralph G. "Absolute Electronegativity and Hardness: Application to Inorganic Chemistry." Inorganic Chemistry, volume 27, number 4, 1988, pp 734–740. doi:10.1021/ic00277a030

Pekka Pyykkö. Self-Consistent, Year-2009 Covalent Radii. http://www.chem.helsinki.fi/~pyykko/Radii09.pdf. Accessed on November 20, 2010.

Polak, Mark L., gustav Gerber, Joe Ho, and W. C. Lineberger. "Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Small Antimony Cluster Anions: Sb-, Sb-2, Sb-3, Sb-4." Journal of Chemical Physics, volume 97, number 12, 1992, pp. 8990–9000. doi:10.1063/1.463326

Pyykkö, Pekka, and Michiko Atsumi. "Molecular Double-Bond Covalent Radii for Elements Li-E112." Chemistry - A European Journal, volume 15, number 46, 2009, pp. 12770–12779. doi:10.1002/chem.200901472

Pyykkö, Pekka, and Michiko Atsumi. "Molecular Single-Bond Covalent Radii for Elements 1-118." Chemistry - A European Journal, volume 15, number 1, 2009, pp. 186–197. doi:10.1002/chem.200800987

Pyykkö, Pekka, Sebastian Riedel, and Michael Patzschke. "Triple-Bond Covalent Radii." Chemistry - A European Journal, volume 11, number 12, 2005, pp. 3511–3520. doi:10.1002/chem.200401299

Rohrer, Gregory S. Structure and Bonding in Crystalline Materials. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Samsonov, G. V., editor. Handbook of the Physicochemical Properties of the Elements. New York: Plenum Publishing Corporation, 1968.

Sanderson, R. T. "Principles of Electronegativity: Part I. General Nature." Journal of Chemical Education, volume 65, number 2, 1988, pp. 112–118. doi:10.1021/ed065p112

Sanderson, R. T. Polar Covalence. New York: Academic Press, Inc., 1983.

Sansonetti, J. E., and W. C. Martin. "Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopic Data." Journal Of Physical And Chemical Reference Data, volume 34, number 4, 2005, pp. 1559–2259. doi:10.1063/1.1800011

Scientific Group Thermodata Europe (SGTE). Pure Substances: Part 1—Elements and Compounds from AgBr to Ba3N2. Edited by I. Hurtado and D. Neuschütz. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1999. doi:10.1007/10652891_3

Shannon, R. D. "Revised Effective Ionic Radii and Systematic Studies of Interatomic Distances in Halides and Chalcogenides." Acta Crystallographica Section A, volume 32, number 5, 1976, pp. 751–767. doi:10.1107/S0567739476001551

Silbey, Robert J., Robert A. Alberty, and Moungi G. Bawendi. Physical Chemistry, 4th edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.

Singman, Charles N. "Atomic Volume and Allotropy of the Elements." Journal of Chemical Education, volume 61, number 2, 1984, pp. 137–142. doi:10.1021/ed061p137

Slater, J. C. "Atomic Radii in Crystals." The Journal of Chemical Physics, volume 41, number 10, 1964, pp. 3199–3204. doi:10.1063/1.1725697

Smith, Derek W. "Electronegativity in Two Dimensions: Reassessment and Resolution of the Pearson-Pauling Paradox." Journal of Chemical Education, volume 67, number 11, 1990, pp. 911–914. doi:10.1021/ed067p911

Smith, Derek W. Inorganic Substances: A Prelude to the Study of Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Stewart, G. R. "Measurement of low-temperature specific heat." Review of Scientific Instruments, volume 54, number 1, 1983, pp. 1–11. doi:10.1063/1.1137207

Stewart, G. R. "Measurement of Low-Temperature Specific Heat." Review of Scientific Instruments, volume 54, number 1, 1983, pp. 1–11. doi:10.1063/1.1137207

Tari, A. The Specific Heat of Matter at Low Temperatures. London: Imperial College Press, 2003.

U. S. Department of Transportation (DOT), Transport Canada (TC), Secretariat of Transport and Communications of Mexico (SCT), and Centro de Información Química para Emergencias (CIQUIME). 2008 Emergency Response Guidebook.

Vainshtein, Boris K., Vladimir M. Fridkin, and Vladimir L. Indenbom. Structure of Crystals, 2nd edition. Modern Crystallography 2. Edited by Boris K. Vainshtein, A. A. Chernov, and L. A. Shuvalov. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1995.

Voigt, H. H., editor. Landolt–Börnstein—Group VI Astronomy and Astrophysics. Berlin: Springer–Verlag, 1993.

Waber, J. T., and Don T. Cromer. "Orbital Radii of Atoms and Ions." Journal of Chemical Physics, volume 42, number 12, 1965, pp. 4116–4123. doi:10.1063/1.1695904

Wagman, Donald D., William H. Evans, Vivian B. Parker, Richard H. Schumm, Iva Halow, Sylvia M. Bailey, Kenneth L. Churney, and Ralph L. Nuttall. "Thermal Conductivity of the Elements: A Comprehensive Review." Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, volume 11, supplement 2, 1982, pp. 2–1 to 2–392.

Waldron, Kimberley A., Erin M. Fehringer, Amy E. Streeb, Jennifer E. Trosky, and Joshua J. Pearson. "Screening Percentages Based on Slater Effective Nuclear Charge as a Versatile Tool for Teaching Periodic Trends." Journal of Chemical Education, volume 78, number 5, 2001, pp. 635–639. doi:10.1021/ed078p635

Wieser, Michael E., and Tyler B. Coplen. "Atomic weights of the elements 2009 (IUPAC Technical Report)." Pure and Applied Chemistry, volume 83, number 2, 2011, pp. 359–396. doi:10.1351/PAC-REP-10-09-14

Yaws, Carl L. "Liquid Density of the Elements." Chemical Engineering, volume 114, number 12, 2007, pp. 44–46.

Yaws, Carl L. The Yaws Handbook of Physical Properties for Hydrocarbons and Chemicals. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company, 2005.