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Cerium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Ce

Atomic Number

58

Atomic Weight

Rounded

140.1

for regular calculations

Standard

140.116 ± 0.001

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

4

less common with disagreement

3

more common

2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

1.12

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f1 5d1

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

1G4

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 5.5387 eV       

II  (2)

10.85 eV         

III (3)

20.198 ± 0.003 eV

IV  (4)

36.758 ± 0.005 eV

see all 6 energies ...

Electron Affinity

0.955 ± 0.026 eV

Density

liquid, 1071.15 K

6.680 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

6.770 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

20.69 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1070 ± 3 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

3716.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

13.3 W/(m K) 

extrapolated or interpolated

300 K, polycrystalline

11.4 W/(m K) 

298.2 K, polycrystalline

11.3 W/(m K) 

273.2 K, polycrystalline

10.8 W/(m K) 

extrapolated or interpolated

200 K, polycrystalline

 9.00 W/(m K)

extrapolated or interpolated

see all 42 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

163 pm

double bond

137 pm

triple bond

131 pm

Atomic Radius

183 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

8.87 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

313.8 kJ/mol

Quantity

Cerium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 5.5387 eV       

II  (2)

10.85 eV         

III (3)

20.198 ± 0.003 eV

IV  (4)

36.758 ± 0.005 eV

see all 6 energies ...

Electron Affinity

0.955 ± 0.026 eV

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

40443 eV  

LI   (2s)

 6549 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

 6164 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

 5723 eV  

see all 18 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f1 5d1

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

1G4

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

56.8481

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

56.8481

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

21.3700

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

42.7400

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 13 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

93.7%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.910

ωL1

0.058

ωL2

0.110

ωL3

0.111

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.19 

F13

0.25 

F23

0.158

Quantity

Cerium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 1071.15 K

6.680 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

6.770 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

140.1 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

140.116 ± 0.001 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

20.69 cm3/mol

Physical Form

silvery metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

6.3×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

α-cerium, solid, 293 K

2100 m/s

calculated value

Young's Modulus

β-cerium

33.6 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

β-cerium

0.248

Electrical Resistivity

solid, 295 K

81×10-8 Ohm m

Photoelectric Work Function

2.84 eV

Thermionic Work Function

2.6 eV

Superconducting Transition Temperature

5 GPa

1.7 K

maximum temperature

Mineralogical Hardness

2.5

Vickers Hardness

cast, 293 K

235 MN/m2 to 294 MN/m2

forged, 293 K

471 MN/m2

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

γ-cerium, 300 K

23.9 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

γ-cerium, 300 K

0.0418 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

21 cm3

Quantity

Cerium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

4

less common with disagreement

3

more common

2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

1.12

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

1.08

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.12

Nagle Electronegativity

1.05

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

1.5

oxidation state: 3

1.15

Cohesive Energy

per mole

417 kJ/mol    

per atom

  4.32 eV/atom

Quantity

Cerium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1070 ± 3 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

3716.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

13.3 W/(m K) 

extrapolated or interpolated

300 K, polycrystalline

11.4 W/(m K) 

298.2 K, polycrystalline

11.3 W/(m K) 

273.2 K, polycrystalline

10.8 W/(m K) 

extrapolated or interpolated

200 K, polycrystalline

 9.00 W/(m K)

extrapolated or interpolated

see all 42 conductivities ...

Critical Point

10400 K

Vapor Pressure

3432 °C

100 kPa

2886 °C

10 kPa

2481 °C

1 kPa

2169 °C

100 Pa

1921 °C

10 Pa

1719 °C

1 Pa

Neel Point

13 K

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

8.87 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

313.8 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

26.94 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.192 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

12.8 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

179 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

138 K

Quantity

Cerium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-45-1

DOT Number

slabs, ingots or rods

1333

turnings or gritty powder

3078

Quantity

Cerium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

183 pm

Orbital Radius

197.8 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

163 pm

double bond

137 pm

triple bond

131 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

204 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 6

115 pm  

coordination number: 7

121 pm  

coordination number: 8

128.3 pm

coordination number: 9

133.6 pm

coordination number: 10

139 pm  

coordination number: 12

148 pm  

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 6

101 pm  

coordination number: 8

111 pm  

coordination number: 10

121 pm  

coordination number: 12

128 pm  

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 6

101 pm  

coordination number: 7

107 pm  

coordination number: 8

114.3 pm

coordination number: 9

119.6 pm

coordination number: 10

125 pm  

coordination number: 12

134 pm  

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 6

 87 pm  

coordination number: 8

 97 pm  

coordination number: 10

107 pm  

coordination number: 12

114 pm  

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +4

101 pm

ion charge: +3

111 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

127 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

185 pm

Quantity

Cerium Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-cerium

symbol

αCe

allotrope

β-cerium

symbol

βCe

allotrope

γ-cerium

symbol

γCe

allotrope

δ-cerium

symbol

δCe

allotrope

α'-cerium

symbol

α'Ce

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

365 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

2.91×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Cerium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1803

discoverer

Jöns Jacob Berzelius

birth

August 20, 1779

death

August 7, 1848

discoverer

Wilhelm Hisinger

birth

December, 1766

death

June 28, 1852

location of discovery

Vestmanland, Sweden

Origin of Element Name

origin

Ceres

origin description

celestial body—Asteroid

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Ce

origin

cerium

origin description

element name

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

name

cererium

no matching symbol specified

Quantity

Cerium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

6.65×101 ppm

Earth's Mantle

1786 ppb

primitive mantle

Bulk Earth

1.13 ppm

Ocean Water

1.2×10-6 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

34 ppm

Ridge

8.4 ppm

U.S. Coal

21 ppm

Human Body

40 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

2.7 ppm

Human Hair

0.25 ppm

Human Kidney

0.013 ppm

Human Liver

0.29 ppm

Human Nail

0.6 ppm

Ferns

1 ppm to 16 ppm

Fungi

<0.1 ppm

Solar System

1.136

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

1.58 ± 0.09

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

1.63 ± 0.02

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Cerium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

cérium

German

Cer

Italian

cerio

Spanish

cerio

Portuguese

cério

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

ceride

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

cerium (general)

Ce3+, cerium(3+)

Ce4+, cerium(4+)

Ligands

cerido

Heteroatomic Anion

cerate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

cera

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

cery

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