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Tungsten Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

W

Atomic Number

74

Atomic Weight

Rounded

183.8

for regular calculations

Standard

183.84 ± 0.01

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

 6

more common with disagreement

 5

less common with disagreement

 4

more common with disagreement

 3

less common with disagreement

 2

less common with disagreement

 1

less common

 0

less common

-1

less common

-2

less common

-4

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

2.36

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d4

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

5D0

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 7.86403 ± 0.00010 eV

II  (2)

16.37 ± 0.15 eV      

III (3)

26.0 ± 0.4 eV        

IV  (4)

38.2 ± 0.4 eV        

see all 74 energies ...

Electron Affinity

0.815 ± 0.002 eV

 6570 ± 60 cm-1 

Density

22500 K, 1.6 GPa

 3.0 g/cm3  

critical point, predicted

liquid, 3695.15 K

17.700 g/ml 

α-tungsten, solid

25 °C

19.246 ± 0.003 g/cm3

calculated using x-ray lattice parameter measurements

20 °C

19.250 ± 0.004 g/cm3

hydrostatic weighing, zone refined single crystals

77 K

19.316 g/cm3

calculated using x-ray lattice parameter measurements

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

9.47 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 atm

3687 K

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point (melting point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

5828.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K

159 W/(m K)

300 K

174 W/(m K)

298.2 K

174 W/(m K)

273.2 K

177 W/(m K)

200 K

186 W/(m K)

see all 53 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

137 pm

double bond

120 pm

triple bond

115 pm

Atomic Radius

141 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

35.2 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

799.1 kJ/mol

Quantity

Tungsten Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 7.86403 ± 0.00010 eV

II  (2)

16.37 ± 0.15 eV      

III (3)

26.0 ± 0.4 eV        

IV  (4)

38.2 ± 0.4 eV        

see all 74 energies ...

Electron Affinity

0.815 ± 0.002 eV

 6570 ± 60 cm-1 

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

69525 eV  

LI   (2s)

12100 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

11544 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

10207 eV  

see all 19 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d4

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

5D0

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

72.5657

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

72.5657

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

27.3349

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

54.6698

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 14 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

87.6%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.954

ωL1

0.148

ωL2

0.291

ωL3

0.261

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.110

F13

0.333

F23

0.132

Quantity

Tungsten Physical Properties

Notes

Density

22500 K, 1.6 GPa

 3.0 g/cm3  

critical point, predicted

liquid, 3695.15 K

17.700 g/ml 

α-tungsten, solid

25 °C

19.246 ± 0.003 g/cm3

calculated using x-ray lattice parameter measurements

20 °C

19.250 ± 0.004 g/cm3

hydrostatic weighing, zone refined single crystals

77 K

19.316 g/cm3

calculated using x-ray lattice parameter measurements

Molar Mass

Rounded

183.8 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

183.84 ± 0.01 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

9.47 cm3/mol

Physical Form

gray-white metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

600 K

4.75×10-6 K-1

300 K

4.49×10-6 K-1

293 K

4.42×10-6 K-1

260 K

4.32×10-6 K-1

220 K

4.20×10-6 K-1

190 K

4.06×10-6 K-1

see all 26 coefficients ...

Speed of Sound

solid

room temperature, annealed, longitudinal wave

5220 m/s

room temperature, annealed, shear wave

2890 m/s

room temperature, annealed, extensional wave

4620 m/s

20 °C

longitudinal wave

5221 m/s

shear wave

2887 m/s

see all 9 speeds of sound ...

Specific Gravity

68 °F, water at 4 °C (39.2 °F)

19.3

Young's Modulus

411 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.280

Electrical Resistivity

solid

200 K

3.18×10-8 Ohm m

273 K

4.82×10-8 Ohm m

293 K

5.28×10-8 Ohm m

298 K

5.40×10-8 Ohm m

300 K

5.44×10-8 Ohm m

400 K

7.83×10-8 Ohm m

see all 53 resistivities ...

Contact Potential

4.38 eV

Photoelectric Work Function

4.49 eV

Thermionic Work Function

4.52 eV

Superconducting Transition Temperature

0.0154 ± 0.0005 K

Superconducting Critical Magnetic Field at Absolute Zero

1.07×10-4 T

Mineralogical Hardness

7.5

Vickers Hardness

metalloceramic

293 K

3430 MN/m2

673 K

1320 MN/m2

see all 4 hardnesses ...

Reflectivity

surface polished

0.5 μm

49%

0.6 μm

51%

0.7 μm

54%

see all 8 reflectivities ...

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

323.2 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.00309 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

10 cm3

Quantity

Tungsten Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

 6

more common with disagreement

 5

less common with disagreement

 4

more common with disagreement

 3

less common with disagreement

 2

less common with disagreement

 1

less common

 0

less common

-1

less common

-2

less common

-4

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

2.36

Sanderson Electronegativity

oxidation state: 6

1.67

oxidation state: 5

1.48

oxidation state: 4

1.23

oxidation state: 3

0.98

oxidation state: 2

0.73

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.40

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

8.67 eV

Pauling units

1.47   

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

2.36

Nagle Electronegativity

1.31

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

4.40 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 6

2.05

oxidation state: 4

1.95

Chemical Hardness

3.58 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

859 kJ/mol    

per atom

  8.90 eV/atom

Quantity

Tungsten Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 atm

3687 K

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point (melting point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

5828.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K

159 W/(m K)

300 K

174 W/(m K)

298.2 K

174 W/(m K)

273.2 K

177 W/(m K)

200 K

186 W/(m K)

see all 53 conductivities ...

Critical Point

temperature

22500 K

predicted

pressure

1.6 GPa

Vapor Pressure

5550 °C

100 kPa

4854 °C

10 kPa

4306 °C

1 kPa

3864 °C

100 Pa

3500 °C

10 Pa

3204 °C

1 Pa

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

35.2 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

799.1 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

24.27 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.132 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

1.01 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

383 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

312 K

Quantity

Tungsten Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-33-7

ICSC Number

powder

1404

RTECS Number

YO7175000

UN Number

3089

Quantity

Tungsten Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

141 pm

Orbital Radius

136.0 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

137 pm

double bond

120 pm

triple bond

115 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

162 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +4, coordination number: 6

80 pm

ion charge: +5, coordination number: 6

76 pm

ion charge: +6

coordination number: 4

56 pm

coordination number: 5

65 pm

coordination number: 6

74 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +4, coordination number: 6

66 pm

ion charge: +5, coordination number: 6

62 pm

ion charge: +6

coordination number: 4

42 pm

coordination number: 5

51 pm

coordination number: 6

60 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

2.1×102 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

236 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

135 pm

Quantity

Tungsten Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-tungsten

symbol

αW

allotrope

β-tungsten

symbol

βW

allotrope

γ-tungsten

symbol

γW

allotrope

amorphous tungsten

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

274 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

6.30×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Tungsten History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1783

discoverer

Don Fausto de Elhuyar

birth

October 11, 1755

death

January 6, 1833

discoverer

Don Juan José de Elhuyar y de Zubice

birth

June 15, 1754

death

September 20, 1796

location of discovery

Vergara, Spain

Origin of Element Name

origin

tung sten

origin description

mineral—Swedish for heavy stone

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: W

origin

wolfram

origin description

word—German for wolf dirt

U.S. Towns Named After Elements

Tungsten, Nevada

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

symbol

Tu

symbol

Tn

name

scheelium

no matching symbol specified

name

wolfram

no matching symbol specified

Quantity

Tungsten Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

1.25 ppm

Earth's Mantle

16 ppb

primitive mantle

Earth's Core

0.47 ppm

Bulk Earth

0.17 ppm

Ocean Water

0.00012 ppm

River Water

3×10-5 ppm

U.S. Coal

1.0 ppm

Human Body

0.02 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

0.00025 ppm

Human Hair

0.016 ppm

Solar System

0.133

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

1.11 ± 0.15

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

0.68 ± 0.03

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Tungsten Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

tungstène

German

Wolfram

Italian

wolframio

Spanish

wolframio

Portuguese

tungsténio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

tungstide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

tungsten

Ligands

tungstido

Heteroatomic Anion

tungstate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

tungsta

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

tungsty

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

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