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Bromine Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Br

Atomic Number

35

Atomic Weight

Rounded

79.90

for regular calculations

Standard

79.904 ± 0.001

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

 7

less common

 5

more common with disagreement

 4

less common

 3

less common with disagreement

 1

less common with disagreement

 0

less common

-1

more common

Pauling Electronegativity

2.96

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p5

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p5

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Term Symbol

2P3/2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

11.8138 eV

II  (2)

21.591 eV 

III (3)

36 eV     

IV  (4)

47.3 eV   

see all 8 energies ...

Electron Affinity

3.3635880 ± 0.0000020 eV

27129.170 ± 0.015 cm-1  

Density

liquid

25 °C

3.103 g/cm3

265.85 K

3.214 g/ml 

solid, 123 K

4.05 g/cm3 

Molar Volume

solid, the element's solid allotrope existing at the lowest temperature

19.78 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 bar

265.90 ± 0.05 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

331.90 K

Thermal Conductivity

gas

350 K

0.0057 W/(m K)

extrapolated or estimated

300 K

0.0048 W/(m K)

extrapolated or estimated

290 K

0.0046 W/(m K)

extrapolated or estimated

270 K

0.0042 W/(m K)

extrapolated or estimated

250 K

0.0038 W/(m K)

extrapolated or estimated

saturated vapor

400 K

0.0068 W/(m K)

extrapolated or estimated

300 K

0.0047 W/(m K)

extrapolated or estimated

saturated liquid

400 K

0.099 W/(m K) 

extrapolated or estimated

300 K

0.122 W/(m K) 

290 K

0.125 W/(m K) 

270 K

0.130 W/(m K) 

extrapolated or estimated

see all 39 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

114 pm

double bond

109 pm

triple bond

110 pm

Atomic Radius

114 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

10.8 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

30 kJ/mol

Quantity

Bromine Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

11.8138 eV

II  (2)

21.591 eV 

III (3)

36 eV     

IV  (4)

47.3 eV   

see all 8 energies ...

Electron Affinity

3.3635880 ± 0.0000020 eV

27129.170 ± 0.015 cm-1  

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

13474 eV

LI   (2s)

 1782 eV

LII  (2p1/2)

 1596 eV

LIII (2p3/2)

 1550 eV

see all 9 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p5

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p5

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Term Symbol

2P3/2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

34.2471

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

34.2471

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

12.8217

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

25.6434

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 8 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

68.3%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.628 

ωL1

0.0036

ωL2

0.018 

ωL3

0.020 

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.28 

F13

0.52 

F23

0.088

Quantity

Bromine Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid

25 °C

3.103 g/cm3

265.85 K

3.214 g/ml 

solid, 123 K

4.05 g/cm3 

Molar Mass

Rounded

79.90 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

79.904 ± 0.001 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, the element's solid allotrope existing at the lowest temperature

19.78 cm3/mol

Physical Form

red liquid

Specific Gravity

68 °F, water at 4 °C (39.2 °F)

3.12

Dielectric Constant

297.9 K

3.15

68 °F

3.1 

32 °F

1.01

Superconducting Transition Temperature

100 GPa

1.4 K

maximum temperature

Gram Atomic Volume

23 cm3

Quantity

Bromine Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

 7

less common

 5

more common with disagreement

 4

less common

 3

less common with disagreement

 1

less common with disagreement

 0

less common

-1

more common

Pauling Electronegativity

2.96

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity

hybrid14.3% s

2.95

orbitalp

2.60

Sanderson Electronegativity

3.219

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

2.74

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

15.88 eV

Pauling units

 2.685  

Allen Electronegativity

2.685

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 1

2.96

Boyd-Edgecombe Electronegativity

2.75

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

6.1658 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

2.56

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

7.59 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 1

2.8

oxidation state: -1

2.9

Chemical Hardness

4.22 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

118 kJ/mol    

per atom

  1.22 eV/atom

Quantity

Bromine Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 bar

265.90 ± 0.05 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

331.90 K

Thermal Conductivity

gas

350 K

0.0057 W/(m K)

extrapolated or estimated

300 K

0.0048 W/(m K)

extrapolated or estimated

290 K

0.0046 W/(m K)

extrapolated or estimated

270 K

0.0042 W/(m K)

extrapolated or estimated

250 K

0.0038 W/(m K)

extrapolated or estimated

saturated vapor

400 K

0.0068 W/(m K)

extrapolated or estimated

300 K

0.0047 W/(m K)

extrapolated or estimated

saturated liquid

400 K

0.099 W/(m K) 

extrapolated or estimated

300 K

0.122 W/(m K) 

290 K

0.125 W/(m K) 

270 K

0.130 W/(m K) 

extrapolated or estimated

see all 39 conductivities ...

Critical Point

584 K

Vapor Pressure

58.4 °C

100 kPa

2.5 °C

10 kPa

-29.3 °C

1 kPa

see all 16 pressures ...

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

10.8 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

30 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

75.69 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.474 J/(g K)

Quantity

Bromine Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7726-95-6

DOT Number

1744

ICSC Number

0107

RTECS Number

EF9100000

UN Number

1744

Quantity

Bromine Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

114 pm

Orbital Radius

85.1 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

114 pm

double bond

109 pm

triple bond

110 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

120 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: -1, coordination number: 6

182 pm

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 4, square planer

 73 pm

ion charge: +5, coordination number: 3, pyramidal

 45 pm

ion charge: +7

coordination number: 4

 39 pm

coordination number: 6

 53 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: -1, coordination number: 6

196 pm

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 4, square planer

 59 pm

ion charge: +5, coordination number: 3, pyramidal

 31 pm

ion charge: +7

coordination number: 4

 25 pm

coordination number: 6

 39 pm

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: -1

195 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

 62 pm

ion charge: -1

195 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

1.9×102 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

210 pm

Bondi Van Der Waals Radius

185 pm

Pauling Van Der Waals Radius

195 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

115 pm

Quantity

Bromine Crystal Structure

Notes

Atomic Concentration

123 K, 1 atm

2.36×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Bromine History

Notes

Discovery

shared discovery

date of discovery

1825

discoverer

Carl Löwig

birth

March 17, 1803

death

March 27, 1890

location of discovery

Heidelberg, Germany

shared discovery

date of discovery

1826

discoverer

Antoine-Jérôme Balard

birth

September 30, 1802

death

March 30, 1876

location of discovery

Montpellier, France

Origin of Element Name

origin

bromos

origin description

property—Greek for stink or stench

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Br

origin

bromine

origin description

element name

U.S. Towns Named After Elements

Bromide, Oklahoma

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

name

muride

no matching symbol specified

Quantity

Bromine Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

2.4 ppm

Earth's Mantle

0.075 ppm

primitive mantle

Earth's Core

0.7 ppm

Bulk Earth

0.3 ppm

Ocean Water

68 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

58 ppm

River Water

≈0.02 ppm

U.S. Coal

17 ppm

Human Body

260 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

6.7 ppm

Human Hair

0.65 ppm to 53 ppm

Human Kidney

16 ppm to 30 ppm

Human Liver

0.2 ppm to 7 ppm

Human Muscle

7.7 ppm

Human Nail

9 ppm

Fungi

2 ppm to 36 ppm

Solar System

11.8

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Meteorites

2.61 ± 0.04

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Bromine Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

brome

German

Brom

Italian

bromo

Spanish

bromo

Portuguese

bromo

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

bromide (general)

Br-, bromide(1-)

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

bromine (general)

Br+, bromine(1+)

Ligands

bromido (general)

Br-, bromido(1-)

Heteroatomic Anion

bromate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

broma

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

bromy

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

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