Yttrium

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Yttrium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Y

Atomic Number

39

Atomic Weight

Rounded

88.91

for regular calculations

Standard

88.90585 ± 0.00002

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

3

more common

2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.22

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Kr] 4d1 5s2

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Orbital Filling Order

[Kr] 5s2 4d1

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Term Symbol

2D3/2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 6.2173 eV

II  (2)

12.224 eV 

III (3)

20.52 eV  

IV  (4)

60.597 eV 

see all 12 energies ...

Electron Affinity

0.307 ± 0.012 eV

 2480 ± 100 cm-1

Density

liquid, 1795.15 K

4.240 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

4.469 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

19.88 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1795.15 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

3618.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

18.0 W/(m K)

extrapolated or estimated

300 K, polycrystalline

17.2 W/(m K)

extrapolated or estimated

298.2 K, polycrystalline

17.2 W/(m K)

extrapolated or estimated

273.2 K, polycrystalline

17.0 W/(m K)

extrapolated or estimated

200 K, polycrystalline

16.6 W/(m K)

extrapolated or estimated

see all 46 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

163 pm

double bond

130 pm

triple bond

124 pm

Atomic Radius

182 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

17.2 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

393.3 kJ/mol

Quantity

Yttrium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 6.2173 eV

II  (2)

12.224 eV 

III (3)

20.52 eV  

IV  (4)

60.597 eV 

see all 12 energies ...

Electron Affinity

0.307 ± 0.012 eV

 2480 ± 100 cm-1

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

17038 eV  

LI   (2s)

 2373 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

 2156 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

 2080 eV  

see all 12 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Kr] 4d1 5s2

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Orbital Filling Order

[Kr] 5s2 4d1

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Term Symbol

2D3/2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

38.1756

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

38.1756

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

14.3111

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

28.6222

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 10 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

91.4%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.716 

ωL1

0.0059

ωL2

0.026 

ωL3

0.028 

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.26 

F13

0.57 

F23

0.094

Quantity

Yttrium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 1795.15 K

4.240 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

4.469 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

88.91 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

88.90585 ± 0.00002 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

19.88 cm3/mol

Physical Form

silvery metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

10.6×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

solid, 293 K

3300 m/s

calculated value

Specific Gravity

68 °F, water at 4 °C (39.2 °F)

4.47

Young's Modulus

63.5 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.243

Electrical Resistivity

solid, 295 K

58.5×10-8 Ohm m

Superconducting Transition Temperature

115 GPa

19.5 K

maximum temperature

89.3 GPa

17 K  

30 GPa

 3.5 K

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

36.6 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.0273 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

21 cm3

Quantity

Yttrium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

3

more common

2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.22

Sanderson Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

0.65

oxidation state: 2

0.40

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.11

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

6.631 eV

Pauling units

1.12    

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.22

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

2.7237 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

1.11

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

3.19 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.2

Chemical Hardness

3.19 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

422 kJ/mol    

per atom

  4.37 eV/atom

Quantity

Yttrium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1795.15 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

3618.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

18.0 W/(m K)

extrapolated or estimated

300 K, polycrystalline

17.2 W/(m K)

extrapolated or estimated

298.2 K, polycrystalline

17.2 W/(m K)

extrapolated or estimated

273.2 K, polycrystalline

17.0 W/(m K)

extrapolated or estimated

200 K, polycrystalline

16.6 W/(m K)

extrapolated or estimated

see all 46 conductivities ...

Critical Point

8950 K

Vapor Pressure

3334 °C

100 kPa

2763 °C

10 kPa

2354 °C

1 kPa

2047 °C

100 Pa

1802.3 °C

10 Pa

1610.1 °C

1 Pa

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

17.2 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

393.3 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

26.53 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.298 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

8.2 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

248 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

214 K

Quantity

Yttrium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-65-5

RTECS Number

ZG2980000

Quantity

Yttrium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

182 pm

Orbital Radius

169.3 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

163 pm

double bond

130 pm

triple bond

124 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

190 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 6

104.0 pm

coordination number: 7

110 pm  

coordination number: 8

115.9 pm

coordination number: 9

121.5 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 6

 90.0 pm

coordination number: 7

 96 pm  

coordination number: 8

101.9 pm

coordination number: 9

107.5 pm

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

93 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

120 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

2.4×102 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

271 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

180 pm

Quantity

Yttrium Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-yttrium

symbol

αY

allotrope

β-yttrium

symbol

βY

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

355 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

3.02×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Yttrium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1794

discoverer

Johan Gadolin

birth

June 5, 1760

death

August 15, 1852

location of discovery

Turku, Finland

Origin of Element Name

origin

Ytterby

origin description

place—A city in Sweden

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Y

origin

yttrium

origin description

element name

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

symbol

Yt

Quantity

Yttrium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

3.3×101 ppm

Earth's Mantle

4.37 ppm

primitive mantle

Bulk Earth

2.9 ppm

Ocean Water

1.3×10-5 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

128 ppm

River Water

0.04 ppm

U.S. Coal

8.5 ppm

Human Body

0.6 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

0.07 ppm

Human Kidney

<0.0007 ppm

Human Liver

<0.01 ppm

Human Muscle

0.02 ppm

Ferns

0.77 ppm

Solar System

4.64

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

2.24 ± 0.03

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

2.22 ± 0.02

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Yttrium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

yttrium

German

Yttrium

Italian

ittrio

Spanish

ytrio

Portuguese

itrio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

yttride

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

yttrium

Ligands

yttrido

Heteroatomic Anion

yttrate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

yttra

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

yttry

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

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