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Vanadium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

V

Atomic Number

23

Atomic Weight

Rounded

50.94

for regular calculations

Standard

50.9415 ± 0.0001

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

 5

more common

 4

more common with disagreement

 3

more common with disagreement

 2

less common with disagreement

 1

less common

 0

less common

-1

less common

-3

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.63

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ar] 3d3 4s2

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ar] 4s2 3d3

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Term Symbol

4F3/2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 6.74619 eV

II  (2)

14.618 eV  

III (3)

29.311 eV  

IV  (4)

46.709 eV  

see all 23 energies ...

Electron Affinity

0.525 ± 0.012 eV

 4230 ± 100 cm-1

Density

liquid, 2183.15 K

5.550 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

6.000 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

8.32 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 bar

2190 ± 20 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

3653.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K

31.3 W/(m K)

300 K

30.7 W/(m K)

298.2 K

30.7 W/(m K)

273.2 K

30.7 W/(m K)

extrapolated or interpolated

200 K

31.3 W/(m K)

extrapolated or interpolated

see all 46 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

134 pm

double bond

112 pm

triple bond

106 pm

Atomic Radius

135 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

17.6 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

458.6 kJ/mol

Quantity

Vanadium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 6.74619 eV

II  (2)

14.618 eV  

III (3)

29.311 eV  

IV  (4)

46.709 eV  

see all 23 energies ...

Electron Affinity

0.525 ± 0.012 eV

 4230 ± 100 cm-1

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

5465 eV  

LI   (2s)

 626.7 eV

LII  (2p1/2)

 519.8 eV

LIII (2p3/2)

 512.1 eV

see all 7 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ar] 3d3 4s2

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ar] 4s2 3d3

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Term Symbol

4F3/2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

22.4256

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

22.4256

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

 8.0907

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

16.181 

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 7 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

81.1%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.256  

ωL1

0.00058

ωL2

0.0026 

ωL3

0.0026 

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.31

F13

0.58

Quantity

Vanadium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 2183.15 K

5.550 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

6.000 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

50.94 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

50.9415 ± 0.0001 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

8.32 cm3/mol

Physical Form

gray-white metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

8.4×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

solid, 20 °C

longitudinal wave

6023 m/s

shear wave

2774 m/s

Young's Modulus

127.6 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.365

Electrical Resistivity

solid

200 K

12.42×10-8 Ohm m

273 K

18.14×10-8 Ohm m

293 K

19.68×10-8 Ohm m

300 K

20.21×10-8 Ohm m

400 K

28.0×10-8 Ohm m

see all 51 resistivities ...

Contact Potential

4.44 eV

Photoelectric Work Function

3.77 eV

Thermionic Work Function

4.12 eV

Superconducting Transition Temperature

ambient pressure

 5.38 K

120 GPa

16.5 K 

maximum temperature

0 Pa

 5.38 K

Superconducting Critical Magnetic Field at Absolute Zero

1420×10-4 T

Superconducting Energy Gap

0 K

16×10-4 eV

Mineralogical Hardness

7.0

Vickers Hardness

iodide, rolled and annealed at 1273 K for 1 hr, 293 K

628 MN/m2

Reflectivity

surface polished

0.5 μm

57%

0.6 μm

58%

0.8 μm

60%

see all 7 reflectivities ...

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

161.9 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.00618 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

8 cm3

Quantity

Vanadium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

 5

more common

 4

more common with disagreement

 3

more common with disagreement

 2

less common with disagreement

 1

less common

 0

less common

-1

less common

-3

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.63

Sanderson Electronegativity

oxidation state: 5

2.51

oxidation state: 4

1.89

oxidation state: 3

1.39

oxidation state: 2

0.69

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.45

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

9.063 eV

Pauling units

1.53    

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.63

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

3.1482 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

1.27

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

3.6 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 5

2.2

oxidation state: 4

1.9

oxidation state: 3

1.65

oxidation state: 2

1.55

Chemical Hardness

3.1 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

512 kJ/mol    

per atom

  5.31 eV/atom

Quantity

Vanadium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 bar

2190 ± 20 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

3653.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K

31.3 W/(m K)

300 K

30.7 W/(m K)

298.2 K

30.7 W/(m K)

273.2 K

30.7 W/(m K)

extrapolated or interpolated

200 K

31.3 W/(m K)

extrapolated or interpolated

see all 46 conductivities ...

Critical Point

5930 K

Vapor Pressure

3406 °C

100 kPa

2914 °C

10 kPa

2541 °C

1 kPa

2250 °C

100 Pa

2016 °C

10 Pa

1828 °C

1 Pa

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

17.6 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

458.6 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

24.89 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.489 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

9.9 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

399 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

390 K

Quantity

Vanadium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-62-2

Quantity

Vanadium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

135 pm

Orbital Radius

140.1 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

134 pm

double bond

112 pm

triple bond

106 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

153 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +2, coordination number: 6

93 pm  

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6

78.0 pm

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 5

67 pm  

coordination number: 6

72 pm  

coordination number: 8

86 pm  

ion charge: +5

coordination number: 4

49.5 pm

coordination number: 5

60 pm  

coordination number: 6

68 pm  

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +2, coordination number: 6

79 pm  

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6

64.0 pm

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 5

53 pm  

coordination number: 6

58 pm  

coordination number: 8

72 pm  

ion charge: +5

coordination number: 4

35.5 pm

coordination number: 5

46 pm  

coordination number: 6

54 pm  

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +4

60 pm

ion charge: +3

74 pm

ion charge: +2

88 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

88 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

205 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

227 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

135 pm

Quantity

Vanadium Crystal Structure

Notes

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

262 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

7.22×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Vanadium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1801

discoverer

Andrés del Río

birth

November 10, 1764

death

March 23, 1849

location of discovery

Mexico

Origin of Element Name

origin

Vanadis

origin description

mythical—The goddess of beauty in Norse (or Scandinavian) mythology

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: V

origin

vanadium

origin description

element name

U.S. Towns Named After Elements

Vanadium, New Mexico

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

name

zimapanium

no matching symbol specified

name

riom

no matching symbol specified

name

rionium

no matching symbol specified

name

erythronium

no matching symbol specified

name

panchromium

no matching symbol specified

name

erithrome

no matching symbol specified

name

pancrome

no matching symbol specified

Quantity

Vanadium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

1.20×102 ppm

Earth's Mantle

86 ppm

primitive mantle

Earth's Core

150 ppm

Bulk Earth

105 ppm

Ocean Water

0.0015 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Ridge

450 ppm

River Water

0.001 ppm

U.S. Coal

22 ppm

Human Body

0.11 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

0.0035 ppm

Human Hair

0.0045 ppm to 0.5 ppm

Human Kidney

0.03 ppm

Human Liver

0.006 ppm

Human Muscle

0.02 ppm

Human Nail

<0.15 ppm

Ferns

0.13 ppm

Fungi

0.4 ppm

Solar System

293

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

4.00 ± 0.02

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

4.00 ± 0.02

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Vanadium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

vanadium

German

Vanadium

Italian

vanadio

Spanish

vanadio

Portuguese

vanádio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

vanadide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

vanadium

Ligands

vanadido

Heteroatomic Anion

vanadate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

vanada

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

vanady

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

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