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Tin Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Sn

Atomic Number

50

Atomic Weight

Rounded

118.7

for regular calculations

Standard

118.710 ± 0.007

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

 4

less common with disagreement

 2

more common with disagreement

-4

more common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

1.96

oxidation state: 2

1.80

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Orbital Filling Order

[Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p2

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Term Symbol

3P0

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 7.34392 eV

II  (2)

14.6322 eV 

III (3)

30.50260 eV

IV  (4)

40.73502 eV

V   (5)

72.28 eV   

Electron Affinity

1.112066 ± 0.000015 eV

 8969.42 ± 0.12 cm-1  

Density

liquid

1500 K, 1 bar

6.330 g/ml 

1000 K, 1 bar

6.656 g/ml 

solid

400 K

7.234 g/cm3

300 K

7.283 g/cm3

200 K

7.331 g/cm3

100 K

7.375 g/cm3

gray tin, solid, 18 °C

7.285 g/cm3

see all 39 densities ...

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

16.29 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 atm

505.078 K

ITS-90 fixed point (freezing point)

Boiling Point

gray tin, 1 atm

2875.15 K

white tin, 1 atm

2875.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

300 K

polycrystalline

66.6 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

51.5 W/(m K)

interpolated

perpendicular to c-axis

74.2 W/(m K)

interpolated

273.2 K

polycrystalline

68.2 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

52.7 W/(m K)

interpolated

perpendicular to c-axis

75.9 W/(m K)

interpolated

see all 53 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

140 pm

double bond

130 pm

triple bond

132 pm

Atomic Radius

158 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

7.2 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

290.4 kJ/mol

Quantity

Tin Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 7.34392 eV

II  (2)

14.6322 eV 

III (3)

30.50260 eV

IV  (4)

40.73502 eV

V   (5)

72.28 eV   

Electron Affinity

1.112066 ± 0.000015 eV

 8969.42 ± 0.12 cm-1  

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

29200 eV  

LI   (2s)

 4465 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

 4156 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

 3929 eV  

see all 14 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Orbital Filling Order

[Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p2

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Term Symbol

3P0

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

48.9920

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

48.9920

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

18.4297

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

36.8594

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 11 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

81.7%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.860

ωL1

0.037

ωL2

0.065

ωL3

0.064

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.17 

F13

0.3  

F23

0.148

Quantity

Tin Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid

1500 K, 1 bar

6.330 g/ml 

1000 K, 1 bar

6.656 g/ml 

solid

400 K

7.234 g/cm3

300 K

7.283 g/cm3

200 K

7.331 g/cm3

100 K

7.375 g/cm3

gray tin, solid, 18 °C

7.285 g/cm3

see all 39 densities ...

Molar Mass

Rounded

118.7 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

118.710 ± 0.007 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

16.29 cm3/mol

Physical Form

gray tin

cubic crystals

white tin

silvery tetragonal crystals

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

22.0×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

liquid, 240 °C, longitudinal wave

2470 m/s

solid

room temperature, rolled, longitudinal wave

3320 m/s

room temperature, rolled, shear wave

1670 m/s

room temperature, rolled, extensional wave

2730 m/s

20 °C

longitudinal wave

3380 m/s

shear wave

1594 m/s

281 K

2500 m/s

Specific Gravity

68 °F, water at 4 °C (39.2 °F)

7.28

Young's Modulus

white tin

49.9 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

white tin

0.357

Dielectric Constant

gray tin, 300 K, infrared reflectance measurements

24

Electrical Resistivity

white tin, solid, 295 K

11.0×10-8 Ohm m

Contact Potential

4.09 eV

Photoelectric Work Function

4.38 eV

Superconducting Transition Temperature

ambient pressure

3.722 K

11.3 GPa

5.3 K  

maximum temperature

white tin, 0 Pa

3.722 K

Superconducting Critical Magnetic Field at Absolute Zero

white tin

309×10-4 T

Superconducting Energy Gap

white tin, 0 K

11.5×10-4 eV

Mineralogical Hardness

1.5

Reflectivity

surface polished

1.0 μm

54%

2.0 μm

61%

4.0 μm

72%

see all 6 reflectivities ...

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

gray tin, 300 K

111 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

gray tin, 300 K

0.00901 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

16 cm3

Quantity

Tin Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

 4

less common with disagreement

 2

more common with disagreement

-4

more common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

1.96

oxidation state: 2

1.80

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4, hybridsp3

2.21

oxidation state: 2, hybrid30% s

1.85

Sanderson Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

2.298

oxidation state: 2

1.49

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

1.72

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

10.79 eV

Pauling units

 1.824  

Allen Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

1.824

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

1.96

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

4.672 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

1.70

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

4.30 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

1.95

oxidation state: 2

1.75

Free Electron Fermi Surface Parameters

white tin, 300 K

electron concentration

14.48×1022 cm-3

radius parameter

2.23

fermi wavevector

1.62×108 cm-1

fermi velocity

1.88×108 cm/s

fermi energy

10.03 eV

fermi temperature

11.64×104 K

Chemical Hardness

3.05 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

303 kJ/mol    

per atom

  3.14 eV/atom

Quantity

Tin Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 atm

505.078 K

ITS-90 fixed point (freezing point)

Boiling Point

gray tin, 1 atm

2875.15 K

white tin, 1 atm

2875.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

300 K

polycrystalline

66.6 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

51.5 W/(m K)

interpolated

perpendicular to c-axis

74.2 W/(m K)

interpolated

273.2 K

polycrystalline

68.2 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

52.7 W/(m K)

interpolated

perpendicular to c-axis

75.9 W/(m K)

interpolated

see all 53 conductivities ...

Critical Point

5809 K

Vapor Pressure

2620 °C

100 kPa

2165 °C

10 kPa

1834 °C

1 kPa

1582 °C

100 Pa

1384 °C

10 Pa

1224 °C

1 Pa

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

7.2 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

290.4 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

gray tin, 298.15 K, 1 bar

25.77 J/(mol K)

white tin, 298.15 K, 1 bar

26.99 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

white tin, 298.15 K, 1 bar

0.227 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

1.78 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

199 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

254 K

white tin, Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

200 K

Quantity

Tin Identification

Notes

CAS Number

gray tin

7440-31-5

white tin

7440-31-5

ICSC Number

powder

1535

RTECS Number

XP7320000

Quantity

Tin Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

158 pm

Orbital Radius

124.0 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

140 pm

double bond

130 pm

triple bond

132 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

139 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 4

69 pm  

coordination number: 5

76 pm  

coordination number: 6

83.0 pm

coordination number: 7

89 pm  

coordination number: 8

95 pm  

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 4

55 pm  

coordination number: 5

62 pm  

coordination number: 6

69.0 pm

coordination number: 7

75 pm  

coordination number: 8

81 pm  

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +4

 71 pm

ion charge: +2

112 pm

ion charge: -4

294 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

 96 pm

ion charge: -1

370 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

225 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

246 pm

Bondi Van Der Waals Radius

217 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

145 pm

Quantity

Tin Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

gray tin

alternate name

grey tin

alternate name

α-tin

symbol

αSn

allotrope

white tin

alternate name

β-tin

symbol

βSn

allotrope

γ-tin

symbol

γSn

alternate symbol

Sn-II

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

281 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

2.91×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Tin History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

circa 2100 BC

discoverer

unknown

location of discovery

unknown

Origin of Element Name

origin

tin

origin description

word—Anglo-Saxon

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Sn

origin

stannum

origin description

word—Latin

Quantity

Tin Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

2.3 ppm

Earth's Mantle

138 ppb

primitive mantle

Earth's Core

0.5 ppm

Bulk Earth

0.25 ppm

Ocean Water

1×10-5 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

0.6 ppm

River Water

4×10-5 ppm

U.S. Coal

1.3 ppm

Human Body

20 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

1.4 ppm

Human Hair

0.4 ppm to 1 ppm

Human Kidney

0.68 ppm to 4.4 ppm

Human Liver

0.23 ppm to 2.3 ppm

Human Muscle

0.33 ppm to 2.4 ppm

Human Nail

12 ppm

Ferns

2.3 ppm

Fungi

7 ppm to 31 ppm

Solar System

3.82

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

2.0 ± 0.3

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

2.12 ± 0.04

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Tin Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

etain

German

Zinn

Italian

stagno

Spanish

estaño

Portuguese

estanho

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

stannide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

tin (general)

Sn2+, tin(2+)

Sn4+, tin(4+)

Ligands

stannido

Heteroatomic Anion

stannate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

stanna

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

stanny

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