Erbium

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Erbium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Er

Atomic Number

68

Atomic Weight

Rounded

167.3

for regular calculations

Standard

167.259 ± 0.003

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

3

Pauling Electronegativity

1.24

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f12 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f12

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

3H6

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 6.1077 eV     

II  (2)

11.93 eV       

III (3)

22.74 ± 0.10 eV

IV  (4)

42.7 ± 0.4 eV  

Density

liquid, 1802.15 K

8.600 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

9.070 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

18.46 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1795 ± 10 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

3141.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

300 K

polycrystalline

14.3 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

18.4 W/(m K)

perpendicular to c-axis

12.6 W/(m K)

273.2 K

polycrystalline

14.5 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

18.7 W/(m K)

perpendicular to c-axis

12.7 W/(m K)

see all 51 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

165 pm

double bond

133 pm

Atomic Radius

173 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

17.2 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

292.9 kJ/mol

Quantity

Erbium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 6.1077 eV     

II  (2)

11.93 eV       

III (3)

22.74 ± 0.10 eV

IV  (4)

42.7 ± 0.4 eV  

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

57486 eV  

LI   (2s)

 9751 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

 9264 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

 8358 eV  

see all 18 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f12 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f12

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

3H6

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

66.6737

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

66.6737

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

25.1008

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

50.2016

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 13 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

90.3%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.942

ωL1

0.121

ωL2

0.219

ωL3

0.203

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.158

F13

0.301

F23

0.143

Quantity

Erbium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 1802.15 K

8.600 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

9.070 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

167.3 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

167.259 ± 0.003 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

18.46 cm3/mol

Physical Form

silvery metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

12.2×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

solid, 293 K

2830 m/s

calculated value

Young's Modulus

69.9 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.237

Electrical Resistivity

solid, 295 K

81×10-8 Ohm m

Vickers Hardness

cast, 293 K

589 MN/m2

annealed, 293 K

432 MN/m2

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

41.1 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.0243 GPa-1

Quantity

Erbium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

3

Pauling Electronegativity

1.24

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

1.11

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.24

Nagle Electronegativity

1.11

Cohesive Energy

per mole

317 kJ/mol    

per atom

  3.29 eV/atom

Quantity

Erbium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1795 ± 10 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

3141.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

300 K

polycrystalline

14.3 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

18.4 W/(m K)

perpendicular to c-axis

12.6 W/(m K)

273.2 K

polycrystalline

14.5 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

18.7 W/(m K)

perpendicular to c-axis

12.7 W/(m K)

see all 51 conductivities ...

Critical Point

7250 K

Vapor Pressure

2859 °C

100 kPa

2279 °C

10 kPa

1890 °C

1 kPa

1612 °C

100 Pa

1390 °C

10 Pa

1231 °C

1 Pa

Curie Point

18.74 K

Neel Point

85.7 K

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

17.2 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

292.9 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

28.12 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.168 J/(g K)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

188 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

163 K

Quantity

Erbium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-52-0

Quantity

Erbium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

173 pm

Orbital Radius

170.3 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

165 pm

double bond

133 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

189 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 6

103.0 pm

coordination number: 7

108.5 pm

coordination number: 8

114.4 pm

coordination number: 9

120.2 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 6

 89.0 pm

coordination number: 7

 94.5 pm

coordination number: 8

100.4 pm

coordination number: 9

106.2 pm

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

96 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

175 pm

Quantity

Erbium Crystal Structure

Notes

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

347 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

3.26×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Erbium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1843

discoverer

Carl Gustav Mosander

birth

September 10, 1797

death

October 15, 1858

location of discovery

Stockholm, Sweden

Origin of Element Name

origin

Ytterby

origin description

place—A city in Sweden

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Er

origin

erbium

origin description

element name

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

symbol

E

Quantity

Erbium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

3.5 ppm

Earth's Mantle

465 ppb

primitive mantle

Bulk Earth

0.30 ppm

Ocean Water

9×10-7 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

12.9 ppm

Ridge

5.6 ppm

U.S. Coal

1.0 ppm

Solar System

0.2508

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

0.93 ± 0.06

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

0.97 ± 0.02

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Erbium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

erbium

German

Erbium

Italian

erbio

Spanish

erbio

Portuguese

érbio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

erbide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

erbium

Ligands

erbido

Heteroatomic Anion

erbate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

erba

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

erby

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