Palladium

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Palladium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Pd

Atomic Number

46

Atomic Weight

Rounded

106.4

for regular calculations

Standard

106.42 ± 0.01

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

4

more common with disagreement

2

more common

0

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

2.20

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Kr] 4d10

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Orbital Filling Order

[Kr] 4d10

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Term Symbol

1S0

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 8.3369 eV

II  (2)

19.43 eV  

III (3)

32.93 eV  

Electron Affinity

0.56214 ± 0.00012 eV

 4534.0 ± 1.0 cm-1  

Density

liquid, 1973.15 K

10.310 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

12.000 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

8.56 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 atm

1828.0 K

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point (freezing point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

3263 ± 50 K

reference stated that the uncertainty may be larger than indicated

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K

73.6 W/(m K)

300 K

71.8 W/(m K)

298.2 K

71.8 W/(m K)

273.2 K

71.6 W/(m K)

extrapolated or interpolated

200 K

71.6 W/(m K)

extrapolated or interpolated

see all 44 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

120 pm

double bond

117 pm

triple bond

112 pm

Atomic Radius

137 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

17.2 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

393.3 kJ/mol

Quantity

Palladium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 8.3369 eV

II  (2)

19.43 eV  

III (3)

32.93 eV  

Electron Affinity

0.56214 ± 0.00012 eV

 4534.0 ± 1.0 cm-1  

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

24350 eV  

LI   (2s)

 3604 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

 3330 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

 3173 eV  

see all 12 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Kr] 4d10

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Orbital Filling Order

[Kr] 4d10

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Term Symbol

1S0

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

45.0589

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

45.0589

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

16.9414

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

33.8828

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 9 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

85.1%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.820

ωL1

0.014

ωL2

0.047

ωL3

0.049

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.10 

F13

0.57 

F23

0.138

Quantity

Palladium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 1973.15 K

10.310 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

12.000 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

106.4 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

106.42 ± 0.01 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

8.56 cm3/mol

Physical Form

silvery-white metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

11.8×10-6 K-1

283 K

11.78×10-6 K-1

85 K

7.00×10-6 K-1

75 K

6.21×10-6 K-1

65 K

5.23×10-6 K-1

see all 19 coefficients ...

Speed of Sound

solid, 283 K

3070 m/s

calculated value

Young's Modulus

121 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.394

Electrical Resistivity

solid

200 K

6.88×10-8 Ohm m

273.15 K

9.78×10-8 Ohm m

293 K

10.54×10-8 Ohm m

300 K

10.80×10-8 Ohm m

400 K

14.48×10-8 Ohm m

see all 48 resistivities ...

Contact Potential

4.49 eV

Photoelectric Work Function

4.97 eV

Thermionic Work Function

4.99 eV

Mineralogical Hardness

4.75

Vickers Hardness

annealed at 1573 K for 3 hr, purity - 99.99%

293 K

461 MN/m2

673 K

451 MN/m2

see all 7 hardnesses ...

Reflectivity

surface polished

1.0 μm

72%

2.0 μm

81%

4.0 μm

88%

see all 6 reflectivities ...

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

180.8 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.00553 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

9 cm3

Quantity

Palladium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

4

more common with disagreement

2

more common

0

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

2.20

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

1.35

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

9.402 eV

Pauling units

1.58    

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

2.20

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

3.5727 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

1.61

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

4.45 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

2.1

Chemical Hardness

3.89 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

376 kJ/mol    

per atom

  3.89 eV/atom

Quantity

Palladium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 atm

1828.0 K

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point (freezing point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

3263 ± 50 K

reference stated that the uncertainty may be larger than indicated

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K

73.6 W/(m K)

300 K

71.8 W/(m K)

298.2 K

71.8 W/(m K)

273.2 K

71.6 W/(m K)

extrapolated or interpolated

200 K

71.6 W/(m K)

extrapolated or interpolated

see all 44 conductivities ...

Critical Point

7100 K

Vapor Pressure

3263 K

1 atm

3259 K

1 bar

2765 K

1×10-1 bar

2400 K

1×10-2 bar

1828.0 K

4.227×10-5 bar

melting point

see all 19 pressures ...

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

17.2 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

393.3 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

25.98 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.246 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

9.45 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

271 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

275 K

Quantity

Palladium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-05-3

Quantity

Palladium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

137 pm

Orbital Radius

56.7 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

120 pm

double bond

117 pm

triple bond

112 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

139 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +1, coordination number: 2

 73 pm  

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 4, square planer

 78 pm  

coordination number: 6

100 pm  

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6

 90 pm  

ion charge: +4, coordination number: 6

 75.5 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +1, coordination number: 2

59 pm  

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 4, square planer

64 pm  

coordination number: 6

86 pm  

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6

76 pm  

ion charge: +4, coordination number: 6

61.5 pm

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +2

86 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

205 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

235 pm

Bondi Van Der Waals Radius

163 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

140 pm

Quantity

Palladium Crystal Structure

Notes

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

275 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

6.80×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Palladium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1803

discoverer

William Hyde Wollaston

birth

August 6, 1766

death

December 22, 1828

location of discovery

London, England

Origin of Element Name

origin

Pallas

origin description

celestial body—Asteroid

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Pd

origin

palladium

origin description

element name

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

name

ceresium

no matching symbol specified

symbol

Pa

Quantity

Palladium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

1.5×10-2 ppm

Earth's Mantle

3.27 ppb

primitive mantle

Earth's Core

3.1 ppm

Bulk Earth

1 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Ridge

21 ppb

U.S. Coal

<0.001 ppm

estimated from USGS and literature data

Solar System

1.39

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

1.69 ± 0.04

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

1.69 ± 0.04

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Palladium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

palladium

German

Palladium

Italian

palladio

Spanish

paladio

Portuguese

paládio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

palladide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

palladium (general)

Pd2+, palladium(2+)

Pd4+, palladium(4+)

Ligands

palladido

Heteroatomic Anion

palladate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

pallada

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

pallady

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

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