Cobalt

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Cobalt Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Co

Atomic Number

27

Atomic Weight

Rounded

58.93

for regular calculations

Standard

58.933195 ± 0.000005

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

 5

less common

 4

less common

 3

more common with disagreement

 2

more common

 1

less common

 0

less common

-1

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.88

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ar] 3d7 4s2

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ar] 4s2 3d7

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Term Symbol

4F9/2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 7.88101 eV    

II  (2)

17.084 eV      

III (3)

33.50 ± 0.06 eV

IV  (4)

51.3 ± 0.1 eV  

see all 27 energies ...

Electron Affinity

0.6633 ± 0.0006 eV

  5350 ± 5 cm-1   

Density

liquid, 1873.15 K

7.540 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

8.860 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

6.67 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 atm

1768 K

ITS-90 second-quality, secondary reference point (freezing point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

3200.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

 85.4 W/(m K)

300 K, polycrystalline

100 W/(m K)  

298.2 K, polycrystalline

100 W/(m K)  

273.2 K, polycrystalline

105 W/(m K)  

200 K, polycrystalline

122 W/(m K)  

see all 45 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

111 pm

double bond

103 pm

triple bond

 96 pm

Atomic Radius

125 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

15.2 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

382.4 kJ/mol

Quantity

Cobalt Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 7.88101 eV    

II  (2)

17.084 eV      

III (3)

33.50 ± 0.06 eV

IV  (4)

51.3 ± 0.1 eV  

see all 27 energies ...

Electron Affinity

0.6633 ± 0.0006 eV

  5350 ± 5 cm-1   

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

7709 eV  

LI   (2s)

 925.1 eV

LII  (2p1/2)

 793.2 eV

LIII (2p3/2)

 778.1 eV

see all 7 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ar] 3d7 4s2

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ar] 4s2 3d7

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Term Symbol

4F9/2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

26.3668

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

26.3668

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

 9.7025

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

19.405 

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 7 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

76.5%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.388 

ωL1

0.0012

ωL2

0.0077

ωL3

0.0077

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.30

F13

0.56

Quantity

Cobalt Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 1873.15 K

7.540 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

8.860 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

58.93 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

58.933195 ± 0.000005 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

6.67 cm3/mol

Physical Form

gray metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

13.0×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

solid, 298 K

4720 m/s

Specific Gravity

68 °F, water at 4 °C (39.2 °F)

8.92

Young's Modulus

ε-cobalt

211 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

ε-cobalt

0.320

Electrical Resistivity

solid, 295 K

5.8×10-8 Ohm m

Contact Potential

4.21 eV

Photoelectric Work Function

4.20 eV

Thermionic Work Function

4.40 eV

Mineralogical Hardness

5.0

Vickers Hardness

smelted in vacuum

293 K

1043 MN/m2

653 K

1050 MN/m2

see all 7 hardnesses ...

Reflectivity

surface polished

1.0 μm

67%

2.0 μm

72%

4.0 μm

81%

see all 6 reflectivities ...

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

191.4 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.00522 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

7 cm3

Quantity

Cobalt Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

 5

less common

 4

less common

 3

more common with disagreement

 2

more common

 1

less common

 0

less common

-1

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.88

Sanderson Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

3.10

oxidation state: 3

2.56

oxidation state: 2

1.96

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.70

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

10.86 eV

Pauling units

 1.84   

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.88

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

3.7305 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

1.44

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

4.3 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.8

Chemical Hardness

3.6 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

424 kJ/mol    

per atom

  4.39 eV/atom

Quantity

Cobalt Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 atm

1768 K

ITS-90 second-quality, secondary reference point (freezing point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

3200.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

 85.4 W/(m K)

300 K, polycrystalline

100 W/(m K)  

298.2 K, polycrystalline

100 W/(m K)  

273.2 K, polycrystalline

105 W/(m K)  

200 K, polycrystalline

122 W/(m K)  

see all 45 conductivities ...

Critical Point

5400 K

Vapor Pressure

2925 °C

100 kPa

2482 °C

10 kPa

2150 °C

1 kPa

1892 °C

100 Pa

1687 °C

10 Pa

1517 °C

1 Pa

Curie Point

1390 K

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

15.2 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

382.4 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

24.81 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.421 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

4.4 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

460 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

386 K

Quantity

Cobalt Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-48-4

ICSC Number

0782

RTECS Number

GF8750000

Quantity

Cobalt Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

125 pm

Orbital Radius

118.1 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

111 pm

double bond

103 pm

triple bond

 96 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

low spin

126 pm

high spin

150 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 4, high spin

 72 pm  

coordination number: 5

 81 pm  

coordination number: 6

low spin

 79 pm  

high spin

 88.5 pm

coordination number: 8

104 pm  

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6

low spin

 68.5 pm

high spin

 75 pm  

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 4

 54 pm  

coordination number: 6, high spin

 67 pm  

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 4, high spin

58 pm  

coordination number: 5

67 pm  

coordination number: 6

low spin

65 pm  

high spin

74.5 pm

coordination number: 8

90 pm  

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6

low spin

54.5 pm

high spin

61 pm  

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 4

40 pm  

coordination number: 6, high spin

53 pm  

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

63 pm

ion charge: +2

74 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

2.0×102 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

225 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

135 pm

Quantity

Cobalt Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

ε-cobalt

alternate name

α-cobalt

symbol

εCo

alternate symbol

αCo

allotrope

α-cobalt

alternate name

β-cobalt

symbol

αCo

alternate symbol

βCo

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

250 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

8.97×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Cobalt History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1737 to 1738

discoverer

Georg Brandt

birth

June 26 (or July 21), 1694

death

April 29, 1768

location of discovery

Stockholm, Sweden

Origin of Element Name

origin

kobold

origin description

mythical—German for subterranean gnome or evil sprite

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Co

origin

cobalt

origin description

element name

U.S. Towns Named After Elements

Cobalt, Idaho

Quantity

Cobalt Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

2.5×101 ppm

Earth's Mantle

102 ppm

primitive mantle

Earth's Core

0.25 ppm

Bulk Earth

880 ppm

Ocean Water

8×10-5 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

82 ppm

Ridge

105 ppm

River Water

0.0002 ppm

U.S. Coal

6.1 ppm

Human Body

3 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

0.01 ppm to 0.04 ppm

Human Hair

0.2 ppm to 1 ppm

Human Kidney

0.035 ppm to 0.31 ppm

Human Liver

0.06 ppm to 1.1 ppm

Human Muscle

0.028 ppm to 0.65 ppm

Human Nail

<0.2 ppm

Bacteria

7.9 ppm

Ferns

0.66 ppm

Fungi

0.3 ppm to 1 ppm

Solar System

2250

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

4.92 ± 0.04

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

4.90 ± 0.01

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Halley's Comet

0.3 ± 0.2 atoms

number of atoms for every 100 atoms of magnesium

Quantity

Cobalt Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

cobalt

German

Kobalt

Italian

cobalto

Spanish

cobalto

Portuguese

cobalto

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

cobaltide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

cobalt (general)

Co2+, cobalt(2+)

Co3+, cobalt(3+)

Ligands

cobaltido

Heteroatomic Anion

cobaltate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

cobalta

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

cobalty

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

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