Thulium

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Thulium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Tm

Atomic Number

69

Atomic Weight

Rounded

168.9

for regular calculations

Standard

168.93421 ± 0.00002

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

3

more common

2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

1.25

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f13 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f13

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

2F7/2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 6.18431 eV    

II  (2)

12.05 eV       

III (3)

23.68 ± 0.10 eV

IV  (4)

42.7 ± 0.4 eV  

Electron Affinity

1.029 ± 0.022 eV

Density

liquid, 1818.15 K

9.000 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

9.320 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

19.13 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1822 ± 10 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

2223.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

300 K

polycrystalline

16.8 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

24.2 W/(m K)

perpendicular to c-axis

14.1 W/(m K)

273.2 K

polycrystalline

16.8 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

24.2 W/(m K)

perpendicular to c-axis

14.0 W/(m K)

see all 54 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

164 pm

double bond

131 pm

Atomic Radius

173 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

18.4 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

247 kJ/mol

Quantity

Thulium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 6.18431 eV    

II  (2)

12.05 eV       

III (3)

23.68 ± 0.10 eV

IV  (4)

42.7 ± 0.4 eV  

Electron Affinity

1.029 ± 0.022 eV

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

59390 eV  

LI   (2s)

10116 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

 9617 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

 8648 eV  

see all 18 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f13 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f13

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

2F7/2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

67.6563

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

67.6563

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

25.4739

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

50.9478

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 13 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

90.0%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.945

ωL1

0.131

ωL2

0.231

ωL3

0.212

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.150

F13

0.306

F23

0.141

Quantity

Thulium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 1818.15 K

9.000 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

9.320 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

168.9 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

168.93421 ± 0.00002 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

19.13 cm3/mol

Physical Form

silvery metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

13.3×10-6 K-1

Young's Modulus

74 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.213

Electrical Resistivity

solid, 295 K

62×10-8 Ohm m

Vickers Hardness

cast, 293 K

520 MN/m2

annealed, 293 K

471 MN/m2

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

39.7 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.0252 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

18 cm3

Quantity

Thulium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

3

more common

2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

1.25

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

1.11

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

1.25

Nagle Electronegativity

1.12

Cohesive Energy

per mole

233 kJ/mol    

per atom

  2.42 eV/atom

Quantity

Thulium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1822 ± 10 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

2223.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

300 K

polycrystalline

16.8 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

24.2 W/(m K)

perpendicular to c-axis

14.1 W/(m K)

273.2 K

polycrystalline

16.8 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

24.2 W/(m K)

perpendicular to c-axis

14.0 W/(m K)

see all 54 conductivities ...

Critical Point

6430 K

Vapor Pressure

1944 °C

100 kPa

1548 °C

10 kPa

1297 °C

1 kPa

1108 °C

100 Pa

962 °C

10 Pa

844 °C

1 Pa

Curie Point

32 K

Neel Point

56 K

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

18.4 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

247 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

27.03 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.160 J/(g K)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

200 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

167 K

Quantity

Thulium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-30-4

Quantity

Thulium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

173 pm

Orbital Radius

168.1 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

164 pm

double bond

131 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

190 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 6

117 pm  

coordination number: 7

123 pm  

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 6

102.0 pm

coordination number: 8

113.4 pm

coordination number: 9

119.2 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 6

103 pm  

coordination number: 7

109 pm  

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 6

 88.0 pm

coordination number: 8

 99.4 pm

coordination number: 9

105.2 pm

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

95 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

175 pm

Quantity

Thulium Crystal Structure

Notes

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

354 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

3.32×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Thulium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1879

discoverer

Per Teodor Cleve

birth

February 10, 1840

death

June 18, 1905

location of discovery

Uppsala, Sweden

Origin of Element Name

origin

Thule

origin description

place—Ancient name for Scandinavia

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Tm

origin

thulium

origin description

element name

Quantity

Thulium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

5.2×10-1 ppm

Earth's Mantle

71.7 ppb

primitive mantle

Bulk Earth

0.046 ppm

Ocean Water

2×10-7 ppm

U.S. Coal

0.15 ppm

calculated from cerium and lanthanum data

Solar System

0.0378

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

0.00 ± 0.15

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

0.15 ± 0.04

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Thulium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

thulium

German

Thulium

Italian

tulio

Spanish

tulio

Portuguese

túlio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

thulide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

thulium

Ligands

thulido

Heteroatomic Anion

thulate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

thula

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

thuly

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