Lanthanum

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Lanthanum Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

La

Atomic Number

57

Atomic Weight

Rounded

138.9

for regular calculations

Standard

138.90547 ± 0.00007

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

3

more common

2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

1.10

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 5d1 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 5d1

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

2D3/2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 5.5769 eV         

II  (2)

11.059 eV          

III (3)

19.1774 ± 0.0006 eV

IV  (4)

49.95 ± 0.06 eV    

V   (5)

61.6 ± 0.6 eV      

Electron Affinity

0.47 ± 0.02 eV 

3790 ± 160 cm-1

Density

liquid, 1191.15 K

5.960 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

6.150 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

22.386 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1192 ± 1 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

3737.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

14.9 W/(m K)

300 K, polycrystalline

13.5 W/(m K)

298.2 K, polycrystalline

13.4 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

13.1 W/(m K)

200 K, polycrystalline

11.8 W/(m K)

see all 37 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

180 pm

double bond

139 pm

triple bond

139 pm

Atomic Radius

188 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

10.04 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

399.6 kJ/mol

Quantity

Lanthanum Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 5.5769 eV         

II  (2)

11.059 eV          

III (3)

19.1774 ± 0.0006 eV

IV  (4)

49.95 ± 0.06 eV    

V   (5)

61.6 ± 0.6 eV      

Electron Affinity

0.47 ± 0.02 eV 

3790 ± 160 cm-1

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

38925 eV  

LI   (2s)

 6266 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

 5891 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

 5483 eV  

see all 17 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 5d1 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 5d1

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

2D3/2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

55.8683

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

55.8683

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

20.9767

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

41.9534

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 13 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

94.1%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.905

ωL1

0.055

ωL2

0.103

ωL3

0.104

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.19 

F13

0.25 

F23

0.159

Quantity

Lanthanum Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 1191.15 K

5.960 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

6.150 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

138.9 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

138.90547 ± 0.00007 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

22.386 cm3/mol

Physical Form

silvery metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

12.1×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

α-lanthanum, solid, 293 K

2460 m/s to 2490 m/s

calculated value

Young's Modulus

α-lanthanum

36.6 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

α-lanthanum

0.280

Electrical Resistivity

solid, 295 K

79×10-8 Ohm m

Thermionic Work Function

3.3 eV

Superconducting Transition Temperature

15 GPa

13 K   

maximum temperature

α-lanthanum

4.88 ± 0.02 K

β-lanthanum

ambient pressure

 6.00 K

0 Pa

 6.00 K

Superconducting Critical Magnetic Field at Absolute Zero

β-lanthanum

1100×10-4 T

Superconducting Energy Gap

β-lanthanum, 0 K

19×10-4 eV

Mineralogical Hardness

2.5

Vickers Hardness

cast, 293 K

491 MN/m2

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

24.3 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.0412 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

22 cm3

Quantity

Lanthanum Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

3

more common

2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

1.10

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

1.08

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.10

Nagle Electronegativity

1.04

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

3.1 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.15

Chemical Hardness

2.6 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

431 kJ/mol    

per atom

  4.47 eV/atom

Quantity

Lanthanum Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1192 ± 1 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

3737.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

14.9 W/(m K)

300 K, polycrystalline

13.5 W/(m K)

298.2 K, polycrystalline

13.4 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

13.1 W/(m K)

200 K, polycrystalline

11.8 W/(m K)

see all 37 conductivities ...

Critical Point

10500 K

Vapor Pressure

3453 °C

100 kPa

2905 °C

10 kPa

2499 °C

1 kPa

2185 °C

100 Pa

1935 °C

10 Pa

1732 °C

1 Pa

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

10.04 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

399.6 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

27.11 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.195 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

α-lanthanum

 9.45 mJ/(mol K2)

β-lanthanum

11.5 mJ/(mol K2) 

Debye Temperature

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

135 K

α-lanthanum, Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

150 K

β-lanthanum, Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

140 K

Quantity

Lanthanum Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7439-91-0

Quantity

Lanthanum Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

188 pm

Orbital Radius

191.5 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

180 pm

double bond

139 pm

triple bond

139 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

207 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 6

117.2 pm

coordination number: 7

124 pm  

coordination number: 8

130.0 pm

coordination number: 9

135.6 pm

coordination number: 10

141 pm  

coordination number: 12

150 pm  

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 6

103.2 pm

coordination number: 7

110 pm  

coordination number: 8

116.0 pm

coordination number: 9

121.6 pm

coordination number: 10

127 pm  

coordination number: 12

136 pm  

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

115 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

139 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

2.5×102 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

281 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

195 pm

Quantity

Lanthanum Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-lanthanum

symbol

αLa

allotrope

β-lanthanum

symbol

βLa

allotrope

γ-lanthanum

symbol

γLa

allotrope

β'-lanthanum

symbol

β'La

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

373 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

2.70×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Lanthanum History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1839

discoverer

Carl Gustav Mosander

birth

September 10, 1797

death

October 15, 1858

location of discovery

Stockholm, Sweden

Origin of Element Name

origin

lanthanein

origin description

property—Greek for to lie hidden

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: La

origin

lanthanum

origin description

element name

Quantity

Lanthanum Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

3.9×101 ppm

Earth's Mantle

686 ppb

primitive mantle

Bulk Earth

0.44 ppm

Ocean Water

3.4×10-6 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

98 ppm

Ridge

29 ppm

River Water

0.0002 ppm

U.S. Coal

12 ppm

Human Body

0.8 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Hair

0.15 ppm to 0.65 ppm

Human Kidney

0.013 ppm

Human Liver

0.3 ppm

Human Muscle

0.0004 ppm

Human Nail

0.3 ppm

Ferns

1.5 ppm to 15 ppm

Solar System

0.4460

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

1.17 ± 0.07

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

1.22 ± 0.02

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Lanthanum Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

lanthane

German

Lanthan

Italian

lantanio

Spanish

lantano

Portuguese

lantânio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

lanthanide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

lanthanum

Ligands

lanthanido

Heteroatomic Anion

lanthanate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

lanthana

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

lanthany

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

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