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Copper Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Cu

Atomic Number

29

Atomic Weight

Rounded

63.55

for regular calculations

Standard

63.546 ± 0.003

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

4

less common

3

less common

2

more common

1

more common with disagreement

0

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

2.00

oxidation state: 1

1.90

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ar] 3d10 4s1

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ar] 4s1 3d10

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Term Symbol

2S1/2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 7.72638 eV      

II  (2)

20.2924 eV       

III (3)

36.841 ± 0.012 eV

IV  (4)

57.38 ± 0.05 eV  

see all 29 energies ...

Electron Affinity

1.23578 ± 0.00004 eV

 9967.2 ± 0.3 cm-1  

Density

liquid

2000 K, 1 bar

7.471 g/ml 

1500 K, 1 bar

7.881 g/ml 

solid

1000 K

8.58 g/cm3 

400 K

8.91 g/cm3 

300 K

8.96 g/cm3 

25 °C

8.960 g/cm3

200 K

9.00 g/cm3 

100 K

9.04 g/cm3 

see all 39 densities ...

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

7.11 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 atm

1357.77 K

ITS-90 fixed point (freezing point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

2835.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K

393 W/(m K)

300 K

401 W/(m K)

298.2 K

401 W/(m K)

273.2 K

403 W/(m K)

200 K

413 W/(m K)

see all 68 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

112 pm

double bond

115 pm

triple bond

120 pm

Atomic Radius

128 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

13 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

304.6 kJ/mol

Quantity

Copper Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 7.72638 eV      

II  (2)

20.2924 eV       

III (3)

36.841 ± 0.012 eV

IV  (4)

57.38 ± 0.05 eV  

see all 29 energies ...

Electron Affinity

1.23578 ± 0.00004 eV

 9967.2 ± 0.3 cm-1  

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

8979 eV  

LI   (2s)

1096.7 eV

LII  (2p1/2)

 952.3 eV

LIII (2p3/2)

 932.7 eV

see all 7 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ar] 3d10 4s1

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ar] 4s1 3d10

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Term Symbol

2S1/2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

28.3386

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

28.3386

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

10.5099

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

21.0198

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 7 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

75.2%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.454 

ωL1

0.0016

ωL2

0.0100

ωL3

0.011 

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.30 

F13

0.54 

F23

0.028

Quantity

Copper Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid

2000 K, 1 bar

7.471 g/ml 

1500 K, 1 bar

7.881 g/ml 

solid

1000 K

8.58 g/cm3 

400 K

8.91 g/cm3 

300 K

8.96 g/cm3 

25 °C

8.960 g/cm3

200 K

9.00 g/cm3 

100 K

9.04 g/cm3 

see all 39 densities ...

Molar Mass

Rounded

63.55 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

63.546 ± 0.003 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

7.11 cm3/mol

Physical Form

red metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

16.5×10-6 K-1

293 K

16.65×10-6 K-1

283 K

16.43×10-6 K-1

85 K

8.94×10-6 K-1

75 K

7.69×10-6 K-1

65 K

6.26×10-6 K-1

see all 32 coefficients ...

Speed of Sound

liquid, 1350 °C, longitudinal wave

3350 m/s

solid

room temperature, rolled, longitudinal wave

5010 m/s

room temperature, rolled, shear wave

2270 m/s

room temperature, rolled, extensional wave

3750 m/s

20 °C

longitudinal wave

4759 m/s

shear wave

2325 m/s

see all 12 speeds of sound ...

Specific Gravity

68 °F, water at 4 °C (39.2 °F)

8.94

Young's Modulus

129.8 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.343

Electrical Resistivity

solid

200 K

1.046×10-8 Ohm m

273.15 K

1.543×10-8 Ohm m

293 K

1.678×10-8 Ohm m

300 K

1.725×10-8 Ohm m

400 K

2.402×10-8 Ohm m

see all 44 resistivities ...

Contact Potential

4.46 eV

Photoelectric Work Function

4.18 eV

Thermionic Work Function

4.26 eV

Mineralogical Hardness

3.0

Vickers Hardness

single crystal {III}

293 K

343 MN/m2

473 K

314 MN/m2

see all 12 hardnesses ...

Reflectivity

surface polished

0.450 μm

37.0%

0.550 μm

47.7%

0.650 μm

80.0%

see all 19 reflectivities ...

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

137 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.0073 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

7 cm3

Quantity

Copper Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

4

less common

3

less common

2

more common

1

more common with disagreement

0

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

2.00

oxidation state: 1

1.90

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity

oxidation state: 1, orbitals

1.49

Sanderson Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.98

oxidation state: 1

2.03

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

oxidation state: 1

1.75

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

10.96 eV

Pauling units

 1.85   

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 1

1.90

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

4.0026 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

1.51

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

4.48 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

2.0

oxidation state: 1

1.85

Free Electron Fermi Surface Parameters

300 K

electron concentration

8.45×1022 cm-3

radius parameter

2.67

fermi wavevector

1.36×108 cm-1

fermi velocity

1.57×108 cm/s

fermi energy

7.00 eV

fermi temperature

8.12×104 K

Chemical Hardness

3.25 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

336 kJ/mol    

per atom

  3.49 eV/atom

Quantity

Copper Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 atm

1357.77 K

ITS-90 fixed point (freezing point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

2835.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K

393 W/(m K)

300 K

401 W/(m K)

298.2 K

401 W/(m K)

273.2 K

403 W/(m K)

200 K

413 W/(m K)

see all 68 conductivities ...

Critical Point

5421 K

Vapor Pressure

2563 °C

100 kPa

2131 °C

10 kPa

1816 °C

1 kPa

see all 16 pressures ...

Neel Point

60 nK

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

13 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

304.6 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

24.440 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.385 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

0.69 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

347 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

310 K

Quantity

Copper Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-50-8

ICSC Number

powder

0240

RTECS Number

GL5325000

Quantity

Copper Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

128 pm

Orbital Radius

119.1 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

112 pm

double bond

115 pm

triple bond

120 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

132 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +1

coordination number: 2

60 pm

coordination number: 4

74 pm

coordination number: 6

91 pm

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 4

71 pm

square planer

71 pm

coordination number: 5

79 pm

coordination number: 6

87 pm

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6, low spin

68 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +1

coordination number: 2

46 pm

coordination number: 4

60 pm

coordination number: 6

77 pm

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 4

57 pm

square planer

57 pm

coordination number: 5

65 pm

coordination number: 6

73 pm

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6, low spin

54 pm

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +1

96 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

96 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

2.0×102 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

227 pm

Bondi Van Der Waals Radius

1.4×102 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

135 pm

Quantity

Copper Crystal Structure

Notes

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

256 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

8.45×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Copper History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

prehistory

discoverer

unknown

location of discovery

unknown

Origin of Element Name

origin

Cuprum

origin description

place—Latin for Cyprus

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Cu

origin

Cuprum

origin description

place—Latin for Cyprus

U.S. Towns Named After Elements

Copper, California

Quantity

Copper Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

6.0×101 ppm

Earth's Mantle

20 ppm

primitive mantle

Earth's Core

125 ppm

Ocean Water

0.003 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

790 ppm

Ridge

730 ppm

River Water

0.005 ppm

U.S. Coal

16 ppm

Human Body

72 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

1 ppm to 26 ppm

Human Hair

19 ppm

Human Kidney

16 ppm

Human Liver

30 ppm

Human Muscle

10 ppm

Human Nail

18 ppm

Bacteria

150 ppm

Ferns

15 ppm

Fungi

7 ppm to 160 ppm

Solar System

522

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

4.21 ± 0.04

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

4.28 ± 0.04

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Copper Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

cuivre

German

Kupfer

Italian

rame

Spanish

cobre

Portuguese

cobre

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

cupride

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

copper (general)

Cu+, copper(1+)

Cu2+, copper(2+)

Ligands

cuprido

Heteroatomic Anion

cuprate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

cupra

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

cupry

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