Niobium

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Niobium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Nb

Atomic Number

41

Atomic Weight

Rounded

92.91

for regular calculations

Standard

92.90638 ± 0.00002

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

 5

more common

 4

less common with disagreement

 3

less common with disagreement

 2

less common with disagreement

 1

less common

 0

less common

-1

less common

-3

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 5

1.6

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Kr] 4d4 5s1

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Orbital Filling Order

[Kr] 5s1 4d4

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Term Symbol

6D1/2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 6.75885 eV

II  (2)

14.0 eV    

III (3)

25.04 eV   

IV  (4)

38.3 eV    

see all 7 energies ...

Electron Affinity

0.893 ± 0.025 eV

 7200 ± 200 cm-1

Density

liquid, 2750.15 K

7.830 g/ml

solid

2500 K

8.05 g/cm3

2000 K

8.19 g/cm3

1500 K

8.32 g/cm3

1000 K

8.44 g/cm3

400 K

8.56 g/cm3

300 K

8.58 g/cm3

200 K

8.59 g/cm3

100 K

8.60 g/cm3

see all 27 densities ...

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

10.83 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 atm

2745 K

ITS-90 second-quality, secondary reference point (melting point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

5017.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K

55.2 W/(m K)

300 K

53.7 W/(m K)

298.2 K

53.7 W/(m K)

273.2 K

53.3 W/(m K)

200 K

52.6 W/(m K)

see all 47 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

147 pm

double bond

125 pm

triple bond

116 pm

Atomic Radius

147 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

27.2 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

696.6 kJ/mol

Quantity

Niobium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 6.75885 eV

II  (2)

14.0 eV    

III (3)

25.04 eV   

IV  (4)

38.3 eV    

see all 7 energies ...

Electron Affinity

0.893 ± 0.025 eV

 7200 ± 200 cm-1

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

18986 eV  

LI   (2s)

 2698 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

 2465 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

 2371 eV  

see all 12 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Kr] 4d4 5s1

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Orbital Filling Order

[Kr] 5s1 4d4

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Term Symbol

6D1/2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

40.1423

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

40.1423

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

15.0626

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

30.1252

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 10 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

89.7%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.751 

ωL1

0.0094

ωL2

0.031 

ωL3

0.034 

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.10 

F13

0.57 

F23

0.106

Quantity

Niobium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 2750.15 K

7.830 g/ml

solid

2500 K

8.05 g/cm3

2000 K

8.19 g/cm3

1500 K

8.32 g/cm3

1000 K

8.44 g/cm3

400 K

8.56 g/cm3

300 K

8.58 g/cm3

200 K

8.59 g/cm3

100 K

8.60 g/cm3

see all 27 densities ...

Molar Mass

Rounded

92.91 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

92.90638 ± 0.00002 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

10.83 cm3/mol

Physical Form

gray metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

7.3×10-6 K-1

293 K

7.1×10-6 K-1

280 K

6.9×10-6 K-1

273 K

6.9×10-6 K-1

260 K

6.8×10-6 K-1

see all 21 coefficients ...

Speed of Sound

solid, 20 °C

longitudinal wave

5068 m/s

shear wave

2092 m/s

Young's Modulus

104.9 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.397

Electrical Resistivity

solid, 295 K

14.5×10-8 Ohm m

Photoelectric Work Function

4.5 eV

Thermionic Work Function

4.01 eV

Superconducting Transition Temperature

9.2880 K

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point

10 GPa

9.9 K   

maximum temperature

Superconducting Critical Magnetic Field at Absolute Zero

1980×10-4 T

Superconducting Energy Gap

0 K

30.5×10-4 eV

Mineralogical Hardness

6.0

Vickers Hardness

473 K

1320 MN/m2

478 K

1130 MN/m2

see all 8 hardnesses ...

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

170.2 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.00587 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

11 cm3

Quantity

Niobium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

 5

more common

 4

less common with disagreement

 3

less common with disagreement

 2

less common with disagreement

 1

less common

 0

less common

-1

less common

-3

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 5

1.6

Sanderson Electronegativity

oxidation state: 5

1.42

oxidation state: 4

1.25

oxidation state: 3

1.02

oxidation state: 2

0.77

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

oxidation state: 5

1.23

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

8.34 eV

Pauling units

1.41   

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

2.9740 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

1.21

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

4.0 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 5

1.8

oxidation state: 4

1.75

Chemical Hardness

3.0 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

730 kJ/mol    

per atom

  7.57 eV/atom

Quantity

Niobium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 atm

2745 K

ITS-90 second-quality, secondary reference point (melting point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

5017.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K

55.2 W/(m K)

300 K

53.7 W/(m K)

298.2 K

53.7 W/(m K)

273.2 K

53.3 W/(m K)

200 K

52.6 W/(m K)

see all 47 conductivities ...

Critical Point

8700 K

Vapor Pressure

4740 °C

100 kPa

4120 °C

10 kPa

3637 °C

1 kPa

3251 °C

100 Pa

2934 °C

10 Pa

2669 °C

1 Pa

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

27.2 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

696.6 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

24.60 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.265 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

7.80 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

276 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

260 K

Quantity

Niobium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-03-1

Quantity

Niobium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

147 pm

Orbital Radius

158.9 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

147 pm

double bond

125 pm

triple bond

116 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

164 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6

86 pm

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 6

82 pm

coordination number: 8

93 pm

ion charge: +5

coordination number: 4

62 pm

coordination number: 6

78 pm

coordination number: 7

83 pm

coordination number: 8

88 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6

72 pm

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 6

68 pm

coordination number: 8

79 pm

ion charge: +5

coordination number: 4

48 pm

coordination number: 6

64 pm

coordination number: 7

69 pm

coordination number: 8

74 pm

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +5

70 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

100 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

215 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

246 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

145 pm

Quantity

Niobium Crystal Structure

Notes

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

286 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

5.56×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Niobium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1801

discoverer

Charles Hatchett

birth

January 2, 1765

death

February 10, 1847

location of discovery

London, England

Origin of Element Name

origin

Niobe

origin description

mythical—Daughter of king Tantalus in Greek Mythology

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Nb

origin

niobium

origin description

element name

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

name

columbium

matching symbol

Cl

name

columbium

matching symbol

Cb

Quantity

Niobium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

2.0×101 ppm

Earth's Mantle

588 ppb

primitive mantle

Bulk Earth

0.44 ppm

Ocean Water

1×10-6 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

5.1 ppm

U.S. Coal

2.9 ppm

Human Body

1.5 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

<0.07 ppm

Human Hair

2.2 ppm

Human Kidney

0.04 ppm to 0.07 ppm

Human Liver

0.15 ppm

Human Muscle

0.14 ppm

Solar System

0.698

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

1.42 ± 0.06

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

1.39 ± 0.02

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Niobium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

niobium

German

Niob

Italian

niobio

Spanish

niobio

Portuguese

nióbio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

niobide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

niobium

Ligands

niobido

Heteroatomic Anion

niobate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

nioba

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

nioby

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

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