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Magnesium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Mg

Atomic Number

12

Atomic Weight

Rounded

24.31

for regular calculations

Standard

24.3050 ± 0.0006

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

2

Pauling Electronegativity

1.31

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ne] 3s2

[Ne] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of neon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ne] 3s2

[Ne] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of neon

Term Symbol

1S0

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

  7.646235 eV       

II  (2)

 15.03527 eV        

III (3)

 80.1437 ± 0.0006 eV

IV  (4)

109.2655 ± 0.0012 eV

see all 12 energies ...

Electron Affinity

<0 eV

<0 cm-1

Density

liquid, 923.15 K

1.579 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

1.740 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

14.00 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 bar

923 ± 1 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

1363.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

153 W/(m K)

300 K, polycrystalline

156 W/(m K)

298.2 K, polycrystalline

156 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

157 W/(m K)

200 K, polycrystalline

159 W/(m K)

see all 41 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

139 pm

double bond

132 pm

triple bond

127 pm

Atomic Radius

160 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

9.04 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

128.7 kJ/mol

Quantity

Magnesium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

  7.646235 eV       

II  (2)

 15.03527 eV        

III (3)

 80.1437 ± 0.0006 eV

IV  (4)

109.2655 ± 0.0012 eV

see all 12 energies ...

Electron Affinity

<0 eV

<0 cm-1

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

1303.0 eV 

LI   (2s)

  88.7 eV 

LII  (2p1/2)

  49.78 eV

LIII (2p3/2)

  49.50 eV

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ne] 3s2

[Ne] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of neon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ne] 3s2

[Ne] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of neon

Term Symbol

1S0

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

11.6089

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

11.6089

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

 3.6960

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

 7.3920

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 4 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

76.2%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.029   

ωL1

0.000029

ωL2

0.0012  

ωL3

0.0012  

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.32

F13

0.64

Quantity

Magnesium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 923.15 K

1.579 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

1.740 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

24.31 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

24.3050 ± 0.0006 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

14.00 cm3/mol

Physical Form

silvery-white metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

24.8×10-6 K-1

293 K

25.4×10-6 K-1

280 K

25.2×10-6 K-1

273 K

25.1×10-6 K-1

260 K

24.8×10-6 K-1

see all 22 coefficients ...

Speed of Sound

solid

room temperature, annealed, longitudinal wave

5770 m/s

room temperature, annealed, shear wave

3050 m/s

room temperature, annealed, extensional wave

4940 m/s

20 °C

longitudinal wave

5823 m/s

shear wave

3163 m/s

Young's Modulus

44.7 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.291

Electrical Resistivity

solid

200 K, polycrystalline

2.75×10-8 Ohm m

273.15 K, polycrystalline

4.05×10-8 Ohm m

293 K, polycrystalline

4.39×10-8 Ohm m

300 K, polycrystalline

4.51×10-8 Ohm m

400 K, polycrystalline

6.19×10-8 Ohm m

see all 123 resistivities ...

Contact Potential

3.63 eV

Photoelectric Work Function

3.68 eV

Mineralogical Hardness

2.5

Reflectivity

surface polished

0.5 μm

72%

0.6 μm

73%

1.0 μm

74%

see all 7 reflectivities ...

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

35.4 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.0282 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

14 cm3

Quantity

Magnesium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

2

Pauling Electronegativity

1.31

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity

hybridsp

1.37

Sanderson Electronegativity

1.318

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

1.23

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

7.646 eV

Pauling units

1.293   

Allen Electronegativity

1.293

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.31

Boyd-Edgecombe Electronegativity

1.32

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

3.6108 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

1.32

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

3.75 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.3

Free Electron Fermi Surface Parameters

300 K

electron concentration

8.60×1022 cm-3

radius parameter

2.65

fermi wavevector

1.37×108 cm-1

fermi velocity

1.58×108 cm/s

fermi energy

7.13 eV

fermi temperature

8.27×104 K

Chemical Hardness

3.90 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

145 kJ/mol    

per atom

  1.51 eV/atom

Quantity

Magnesium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 bar

923 ± 1 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

1363.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

153 W/(m K)

300 K, polycrystalline

156 W/(m K)

298.2 K, polycrystalline

156 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

157 W/(m K)

200 K, polycrystalline

159 W/(m K)

see all 41 conductivities ...

Critical Point

2535 K

Vapor Pressure

1088 °C

100 kPa

859 °C

10 kPa

698 °C

1 kPa

see all 16 pressures ...

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

9.04 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

128.7 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

24.869 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

1.023 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

1.26 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

403 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

330 K

Quantity

Magnesium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7439-95-4

DOT Number

1869

in pellets, turnings or ribbons

1869

powder

1418

ICSC Number

pellets

0701

powder

0289

RTECS Number

OM2100000

UN Number

pellets

1869

powder

1418

Quantity

Magnesium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

160 pm

Orbital Radius

127.9 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

139 pm

double bond

132 pm

triple bond

127 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

141 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 4

 71 pm  

coordination number: 5

 80 pm  

coordination number: 6

 86.0 pm

coordination number: 8

103 pm  

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 4

57 pm  

coordination number: 5

66 pm  

coordination number: 6

72.0 pm

coordination number: 8

89 pm  

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +2

65 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

82 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

2.2×102 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

242 pm

Bondi Van Der Waals Radius

173 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

150 pm

Quantity

Magnesium Crystal Structure

Notes

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

320 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

4.30×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Magnesium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1755

discoverer

Joseph Black

birth

1728

death

1799

location of discovery

Edinburgh, Scotland

Origin of Element Name

origin

Magnesia,

origin description

place—A district in Thessaly, Greece

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Mg

origin

magnesium

origin description

element name

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

symbol

Ms

name

magnium

no matching symbol specified

Quantity

Magnesium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

2.33×104 ppm

Earth's Mantle

22.17%

primitive mantle

Bulk Earth

15.4%

Ocean Water

1.326×103 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

2.08%

River Water

4.1 ppm

U.S. Coal

0.11%

Human Body

19 g

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

700 ppm to 1800 ppm

Human Hair

19 ppm to 160 ppm

Human Kidney

630 ppm

Human Liver

590 ppm

Human Muscle

900 ppm

Human Nail

16 ppm to 120 ppm

Bacteria

7×103 ppm

Ferns

1.8×103 ppm

Fungi

1×103 ppm

Universe

0.00004

relative to hydrogen = 1.00000

Solar System

1.074×106

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

7.58 ± 0.05

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Moon

Terrae

4.0 ± 0.8 %

Maria

5.1 ± 1.1 %

Average

4.2%

Meteorites

7.57 ± 0.01

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Halley's Comet

100 atoms

number of atoms for every 100 atoms of magnesium

Quantity

Magnesium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

magnésium

German

Magnesium

Italian

magnesio

Spanish

magnesio

Portuguese

magnésio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

magneside (general)

Mg-, magneside(1-)

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

magnesium (general)

Mg+, magnesium(1+)

Mg2+, magnesium(2+)

Ligands

magnesido

Mg-, magnesido(1-)

Heteroatomic Anion

magnesate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

magnesa

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

magnesy

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

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