Hafnium

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Hafnium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Hf

Atomic Number

72

Atomic Weight

Rounded

178.5

for regular calculations

Standard

178.49 ± 0.02

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

4

more common

3

less common

2

less common

1

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

1.3

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

3F2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 6.82507 eV

II  (2)

15 eV      

III (3)

23.3 eV    

IV  (4)

33.33 eV   

Electron Affinity

≈0 eV

≈0 cm-1

Density

liquid, 2506.15 K

12.000 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

13.300 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

13.44 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 bar

2500 ± 20 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

4876.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

22.3 W/(m K)

300 K, polycrystalline

23.0 W/(m K)

298.2 K, polycrystalline

23.0 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

23.3 W/(m K)

extrapolated or interpolated

200 K, polycrystalline

24.4 W/(m K)

extrapolated or interpolated

see all 46 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

152 pm

double bond

128 pm

triple bond

122 pm

Atomic Radius

159 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

25.5 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

661.1 kJ/mol

Quantity

Hafnium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 6.82507 eV

II  (2)

15 eV      

III (3)

23.3 eV    

IV  (4)

33.33 eV   

Electron Affinity

≈0 eV

≈0 cm-1

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

65351 eV  

LI   (2s)

11271 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

10739 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

 9561 eV  

see all 19 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

3F2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

70.6016

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

70.6016

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

26.5949

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

53.1898

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 14 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

88.6%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.950

ωL1

0.141

ωL2

0.268

ωL3

0.241

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.126

F13

0.322

F23

0.136

Quantity

Hafnium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 2506.15 K

12.000 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

13.300 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

178.5 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

178.49 ± 0.02 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

13.44 cm3/mol

Physical Form

gray metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

5.9×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

α-hafnium, solid, 293 K

2740 m/s to 3280 m/s

Specific Gravity

68 °F, water at 4 °C (39.2 °F)

13.31

Young's Modulus

141 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.260

Electrical Resistivity

α-hafnium, solid

200 K

21.02×10-8 Ohm m

273 K

30.39×10-8 Ohm m

293 K

33.08×10-8 Ohm m

300 K

34.03×10-8 Ohm m

400 K

48.11×10-8 Ohm m

see all 54 resistivities ...

Thermionic Work Function

3.53 eV

Superconducting Transition Temperature

0.128 K

62 GPa

8.6 K  

maximum temperature

Mineralogical Hardness

5.5

Vickers Hardness

iodide, 293 K

1760 MN/m2

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

109 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.0092 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

13 cm3

Quantity

Hafnium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

4

more common

3

less common

2

less common

1

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

1.3

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

1.23

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

6.83 eV

Pauling units

1.16   

Nagle Electronegativity

1.20

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

3.8 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

1.5

Chemical Hardness

3.0 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

621 kJ/mol    

per atom

  6.44 eV/atom

Quantity

Hafnium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 bar

2500 ± 20 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

4876.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

22.3 W/(m K)

300 K, polycrystalline

23.0 W/(m K)

298.2 K, polycrystalline

23.0 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

23.3 W/(m K)

extrapolated or interpolated

200 K, polycrystalline

24.4 W/(m K)

extrapolated or interpolated

see all 46 conductivities ...

Critical Point

10400 K

Vapor Pressure

4603 °C

100 kPa

3921 °C

10 kPa

3406 °C

1 kPa

3004 °C

100 Pa

2681 °C

10 Pa

2416 °C

1 Pa

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

25.5 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

661.1 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

25.73 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.144 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

2.15 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

252 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

213 K

Quantity

Hafnium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-58-6

DOT Number

powder, dry

2545

ICSC Number

powder

0847

RTECS Number

MG4600000

UN Number

powder, dry

2545

powder, wetted with water

1326

Quantity

Hafnium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

159 pm

Orbital Radius

147.6 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

152 pm

double bond

128 pm

triple bond

122 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

175 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 4

72 pm

coordination number: 6

85 pm

coordination number: 7

90 pm

coordination number: 8

97 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 4

58 pm

coordination number: 6

71 pm

coordination number: 7

76 pm

coordination number: 8

83 pm

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +4

81 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

225 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

252 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

155 pm

Quantity

Hafnium Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-hafnium

symbol

αHf

allotrope

β-hafnium

symbol

βHf

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

313 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

4.52×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Hafnium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1923

discoverer

Dirk Coster

birth

1889

death

1950

discoverer

George Charles de Hevesy

birth

August 1, 1885

death

July 5, 1966

location of discovery

Copenhagen, Denmark

Origin of Element Name

origin

hafnia

origin description

place—Latin for Copenhagen

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Hf

origin

hafnium

origin description

element name

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

name

celtium

no matching symbol specified

Quantity

Hafnium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

3.0 ppm

Earth's Mantle

300 ppb

primitive mantle

Bulk Earth

0.19 ppm

Ocean Water

7×10-6 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

1.6 ppm

U.S. Coal

0.73 ppm

Fungi

<0.1 ppm

Solar System

0.154

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

0.88 ± 0.08

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

0.75 ± 0.02

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Hafnium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

hafnium

German

Hafnium

Italian

afnio

Spanish

hafnio

Portuguese

háfnio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

hafnide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

hafnium

Ligands

hafnido

Heteroatomic Anion

hafnate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

hafna

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

hafny

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

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