Lithium

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Lithium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Li

Atomic Number

3

Atomic Weight

Rounded

6.94

for regular calculations

Standard

6.938 to 6.997

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

 1

more common

-1

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

0.98

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[He] 2s1

[He] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of helium

Orbital Filling Order

[He] 2s1

[He] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of helium

Term Symbol

2S1/2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

  5.391719 eV

II  (2)

 75.6400 eV  

III (3)

122.45429 eV 

Electron Affinity

0.618049 ± 0.000021 eV

 4984.90 ± 0.17 cm-1  

Density

liquid, 453.69 K

0.512 g/ml 

solid

25 °C

0.534 g/cm3

78 K

0.542 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

13.02 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 atm

453.65 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

1615.00

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K

80.4 W/(m K)

300 K

84.7 W/(m K)

298.2 K

84.8 W/(m K)

273.2 K

85.9 W/(m K)

200 K

90.1 W/(m K)

see all 52 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

133 pm

double bond

124 pm

Atomic Radius

157 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

4.6 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

134.7 kJ/mol

Quantity

Lithium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

  5.391719 eV

II  (2)

 75.6400 eV  

III (3)

122.45429 eV 

Electron Affinity

0.618049 ± 0.000021 eV

 4984.90 ± 0.17 cm-1  

Electron Binding Energies

(1s)

54.7 eV

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[He] 2s1

[He] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of helium

Orbital Filling Order

[He] 2s1

[He] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of helium

Term Symbol

2S1/2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

2.6906

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

2.6906

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

0.6396

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

1.279 

Zeff = ζ × n

Screening Percentage

56.7%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.0003

Quantity

Lithium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 453.69 K

0.512 g/ml 

solid

25 °C

0.534 g/cm3

78 K

0.542 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

6.94 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

6.938 g/mol to 6.997 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

13.02 cm3/mol

Physical Form

soft silvery-white metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

46×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

liquid

5000 m/s

calculated value

solid

6000 m/s

Young's Modulus

β-lithium

4.91 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

β-lithium

0.362

Electrical Resistivity

solid

200 K

5.71×10-8 Ohm m

273.15 K

8.53×10-8 Ohm m

293 K

9.28×10-8 Ohm m

300 K

9.55×10-8 Ohm m

400 K

13.40×10-8 Ohm m

see all 58 resistivities ...

Contact Potential

2.49 eV

Photoelectric Work Function

2.35 eV

Superconducting Transition Temperature

ambient pressure

 0.0004 K

30 GPa

14 K     

maximum temperature

20.3 GPa

 5.47 K  

Mineralogical Hardness

0.6

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

11.6 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.0862 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

13 cm3

Quantity

Lithium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

 1

more common

-1

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

0.98

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity

orbitals

0.97

Sanderson Electronegativity

0.886

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

0.97

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

5.392 eV

Pauling units

0.912   

Allen Electronegativity

0.912

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 1

0.98

Boyd-Edgecombe Electronegativity

1.00

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

2.4435 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

0.94

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

3.01 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 1

1.0

Free Electron Fermi Surface Parameters

78 K

electron concentration

4.70×1022 cm-3

radius parameter

3.25

fermi wavevector

1.11×108 cm-1

fermi velocity

1.29×108 cm/s

fermi energy

4.72 eV

fermi temperature

5.48×104 K

Chemical Hardness

2.39 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

158 kJ/mol    

per atom

  1.63 eV/atom

Quantity

Lithium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 atm

453.65 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

1615.00

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K

80.4 W/(m K)

300 K

84.7 W/(m K)

298.2 K

84.8 W/(m K)

273.2 K

85.9 W/(m K)

200 K

90.1 W/(m K)

see all 52 conductivities ...

Critical Point

3223 K

Vapor Pressure

1337.1 °C

100 kPa

1064.3 °C

10 kPa

871.2 °C

1 kPa

see all 16 pressures ...

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

4.6 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

134.7 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

24.860 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

3.582 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

1.65 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

344 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

448 K

Quantity

Lithium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7439-93-2

DOT Number

1415

ICSC Number

0710

RTECS Number

OJ5540000

UN Number

1415

Quantity

Lithium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

157 pm

Orbital Radius

158.6 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

133 pm

double bond

124 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

128 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +1

coordination number: 4

 73.0 pm

coordination number: 6

 90 pm  

coordination number: 8

106 pm  

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +1

coordination number: 4

59.0 pm

coordination number: 6

76 pm  

coordination number: 8

92 pm  

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +1

60 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

60 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

2.2×102 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

263 pm

Bondi Van Der Waals Radius

182 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

145 pm

Quantity

Lithium Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-lithium

symbol

αLi

allotrope

β-lithium

symbol

βLi

allotrope

γ-lithium

symbol

γLi

Nearest Neighbor Distance

78 K, 1 atm

302.3 pm

Atomic Concentration

78 K, 1 atm

4.700×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Lithium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1817

discoverer

Johan August Arfwedson

birth

January 4 (or 12), 1792

death

October 28, 1841

location of discovery

Stockholm, Sweden

Origin of Element Name

origin

lithos

origin description

mineral—Greek for stone

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Li

origin

lithium

origin description

element name

U.S. Towns Named After Elements

Lithium, Missouri

Quantity

Lithium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

2.0×101 ppm

Earth's Mantle

1.6 ppm

primitive mantle

Bulk Earth

1.1 ppm

Ocean Water

0.18 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

125 ppm

River Water

0.003 ppm

U.S. Coal

16 ppm

Human Body

7 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Kidney

0.016 ppm to 0.044 ppm

Human Liver

0.025 ppm

Human Muscle

0.023 ppm

Solar System

57.1

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

1.10 ± 0.10

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

3.30 ± 0.04

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Lithium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

lithium

German

Lithium

Italian

litio

Spanish

litio

Portuguese

litio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

lithide (general)

Li-, lithide(1-)

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

lithium (general)

Li+, lithium(1+)

Ligands

lithido

Li-, lithido(1-)

Heteroatomic Anion

lithate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

litha

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

lithy

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

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