Zirconium

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Zirconium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Zr

Atomic Number

40

Atomic Weight

Rounded

91.22

for regular calculations

Standard

91.224 ± 0.002

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

 4

more common

 3

less common with disagreement

 2

less common

 1

less common

 0

less common

-2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.33

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Kr] 4d2 5s2

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Orbital Filling Order

[Kr] 5s2 4d2

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Term Symbol

3F2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 6.63390 eV

II  (2)

13.1 eV    

III (3)

22.99 eV   

IV  (4)

34.34 eV   

V   (5)

80.348 eV  

Electron Affinity

0.426 ± 0.014 eV

 3440 ± 110 cm-1

Density

liquid, 2128.15 K

5.800 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

6.520 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

14.024 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 atm

2127 K

ITS-90 second-quality, secondary reference point (melting point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

4682.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

21.6 W/(m K)

300 K, polycrystalline

22.7 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

23.2 W/(m K)

extrapolated or interpolated

200 K, polycrystalline

25.2 W/(m K)

extrapolated or interpolated

see all 45 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

154 pm

double bond

127 pm

triple bond

121 pm

Atomic Radius

160 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

23 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

581.6 kJ/mol

Quantity

Zirconium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 6.63390 eV

II  (2)

13.1 eV    

III (3)

22.99 eV   

IV  (4)

34.34 eV   

V   (5)

80.348 eV  

Electron Affinity

0.426 ± 0.014 eV

 3440 ± 110 cm-1

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

17998 eV  

LI   (2s)

 2532 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

 2307 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

 2223 eV  

see all 12 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Kr] 4d2 5s2

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Orbital Filling Order

[Kr] 5s2 4d2

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Term Symbol

3F2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

39.1590

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

39.1590

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

14.6869

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

29.3738

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 10 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

90.4%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.734 

ωL1

0.0068

ωL2

0.028 

ωL3

0.031 

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.26

F13

0.57

F23

0.1 

Quantity

Zirconium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 2128.15 K

5.800 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

6.520 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

91.22 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

91.224 ± 0.002 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

14.024 cm3/mol

Physical Form

gray-white metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

5.7×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

solid, 20 °C

longitudinal wave

4650 m/s

shear wave

2250 m/s

Specific Gravity

68 °F, water at 4 °C (39.2 °F)

6.51

Young's Modulus

97.1 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.380

Electrical Resistivity

α-zirconium, solid

200 K

26.33×10-8 Ohm m

273 K

38.8×10-8 Ohm m

293 K

42.1×10-8 Ohm m

300 K

43.3×10-8 Ohm m

400 K

60.3×10-8 Ohm m

see all 45 resistivities ...

Contact Potential

3.60 eV

Photoelectric Work Function

3.82 eV

Thermionic Work Function

4.21 eV

Superconducting Transition Temperature

ambient pressure

 0.546 K

30 GPa

11 K    

maximum temperature

0 Pa

 0.546 K

Superconducting Critical Magnetic Field at Absolute Zero

47×10-4 T

Mineralogical Hardness

5.0

Vickers Hardness

iodide, purity - 99.99%

293 K

903 MN/m2

473 K

540 MN/m2

873 K

235 MN/m2

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

83.3 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.0120 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

14 cm3

Quantity

Zirconium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

 4

more common

 3

less common with disagreement

 2

less common

 1

less common

 0

less common

-2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.33

Sanderson Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

0.90

oxidation state: 3

0.79

oxidation state: 2

0.52

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

1.22

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

7.808 eV

Pauling units

1.32    

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.33

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

2.8489 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

1.17

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

3.64 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

1.5

Chemical Hardness

3.21 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

603 kJ/mol    

per atom

  6.25 eV/atom

Quantity

Zirconium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 atm

2127 K

ITS-90 second-quality, secondary reference point (melting point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

4682.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

21.6 W/(m K)

300 K, polycrystalline

22.7 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

23.2 W/(m K)

extrapolated or interpolated

200 K, polycrystalline

25.2 W/(m K)

extrapolated or interpolated

see all 45 conductivities ...

Critical Point

8650 K

Vapor Pressure

4405 °C

100 kPa

3780 °C

10 kPa

3302 °C

1 kPa

2924 °C

100 Pa

2618 °C

10 Pa

2366 °C

1 Pa

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

23 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

581.6 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

25.36 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.278 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

2.77 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

290 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

250 K

Quantity

Zirconium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-67-7

DOT Number

dry, coiled wire, finished metal sheets or strips

2858

dry, finished sheets, strips or coiled wire

2009

powder, dry

2008

scrap

1932

ICSC Number

unstable powder

1405

RTECS Number

ZH7070000

UN Number

unstable powder

2008

Quantity

Zirconium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

160 pm

Orbital Radius

159.3 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

154 pm

double bond

127 pm

triple bond

121 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

175 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 4

 73 pm

coordination number: 5

 80 pm

coordination number: 6

 86 pm

coordination number: 7

 92 pm

coordination number: 8

 98 pm

coordination number: 9

103 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 4

59 pm

coordination number: 5

66 pm

coordination number: 6

72 pm

coordination number: 7

78 pm

coordination number: 8

84 pm

coordination number: 9

89 pm

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +4

80 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

109 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

2.3×102 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

257 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

155 pm

Quantity

Zirconium Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-zirconium

symbol

αZr

allotrope

β-zirconium

symbol

βZr

allotrope

ω-zirconium

symbol

ωZr

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

317 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

4.29×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Zirconium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1789

discoverer

Martin Heinrich Klaproth

birth

December 1, 1743

death

January 1, 1817

location of discovery

Berlin, Germany

Origin of Element Name

origin

zargun

origin description

color—Arabic for gold colored

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Zr

origin

zirconium

origin description

element name

Quantity

Zirconium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

1.65×102 ppm

Earth's Mantle

10.81 ppm

primitive mantle

Bulk Earth

7.1 ppm

Ocean Water

2.6×10-6 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

225 ppm

River Water

0.003 ppm

U.S. Coal

27 ppm

Human Body

1 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

<0.1 ppm

Human Hair

1.4 ppm

Human Kidney

0.066 ppm to 0.09 ppm

Human Liver

0.11 ppm

Human Muscle

0.08 ppm

Human Nail

1.4 ppm

Bacteria

20 ppm

Ferns

2.3 ppm

Solar System

11.4

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

2.60 ± 0.02

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

2.60 ± 0.02

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Zirconium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

zirconium

German

Zirkonium

Italian

zirconio

Spanish

circonio

Portuguese

zircónio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

zirconide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

zirconium

Ligands

zirconido

Heteroatomic Anion

zirconate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

zircona

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

zircony

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

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