Lutetium

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Lutetium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Lu

Atomic Number

71

Atomic Weight

Rounded

175.0

for regular calculations

Standard

174.9668 ± 0.0001

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

3

Pauling Electronegativity

1.27

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f14 5d1 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d1

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

2D3/2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 5.42586 eV        

II  (2)

13.9 eV            

III (3)

20.9596 ± 0.0012 eV

IV  (4)

45.25 ± 0.03 eV    

V   (5)

66.8 ± 0.3 eV      

Electron Affinity

0.34 ± 0.01 eV

Density

liquid, 1936.15 K

9.300 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

9.840 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

17.78 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1950 ± 15 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

3675.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

300 K

polycrystalline

16.4 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

23.2 W/(m K)

perpendicular to c-axis

13.8 W/(m K)

273.2 K

polycrystalline

16.7 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

23.6 W/(m K)

perpendicular to c-axis

14.0 W/(m K)

see all 54 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

162 pm

double bond

131 pm

triple bond

131 pm

Atomic Radius

172 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

19.2 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

428 kJ/mol

Quantity

Lutetium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 5.42586 eV        

II  (2)

13.9 eV            

III (3)

20.9596 ± 0.0012 eV

IV  (4)

45.25 ± 0.03 eV    

V   (5)

66.8 ± 0.3 eV      

Electron Affinity

0.34 ± 0.01 eV

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

63314 eV  

LI   (2s)

10870 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

10349 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

 9244 eV  

see all 19 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f14 5d1 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d1

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

2D3/2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

69.6195

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

69.6195

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

26.2249

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

52.4498

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 14 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

89.1%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.949

ωL1

0.138

ωL2

0.256

ωL3

0.231

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.134

F13

0.317

F23

0.138

Quantity

Lutetium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 1936.15 K

9.300 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

9.840 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

175.0 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

174.9668 ± 0.0001 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

17.78 cm3/mol

Physical Form

silvery metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

9.9×10-6 K-1

Young's Modulus

68.6 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.261

Electrical Resistivity

solid, 295 K

53×10-8 Ohm m

Superconducting Transition Temperature

174 GPa

12.4 K

maximum temperature

Vickers Hardness

cast, 293 K

1160 MN/m2

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

41.1 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.0243 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

18 cm3

Quantity

Lutetium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

3

Pauling Electronegativity

1.27

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

1.14

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

6.455 eV

Pauling units

1.09    

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.27

Nagle Electronegativity

1.12

Cohesive Energy

per mole

428 kJ/mol    

per atom

  4.43 eV/atom

Quantity

Lutetium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1950 ± 15 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

3675.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

300 K

polycrystalline

16.4 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

23.2 W/(m K)

perpendicular to c-axis

13.8 W/(m K)

273.2 K

polycrystalline

16.7 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

23.6 W/(m K)

perpendicular to c-axis

14.0 W/(m K)

see all 54 conductivities ...

Critical Point

3540 K

Vapor Pressure

3390 °C

100 kPa

2799 °C

10 kPa

2380 °C

1 kPa

2072.8 °C

100 Pa

1829.8 °C

10 Pa

1633 °C

1 Pa

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

19.2 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

428 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

26.86 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.154 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

8.19 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

183 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

116 K

Quantity

Lutetium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7439-94-3

Quantity

Lutetium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

172 pm

Orbital Radius

155.3 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

162 pm

double bond

131 pm

triple bond

131 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

187 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 6

100.1 pm

coordination number: 8

111.7 pm

coordination number: 9

117.2 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 6

 86.1 pm

coordination number: 8

 97.7 pm

coordination number: 9

103.2 pm

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

93 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

175 pm

Quantity

Lutetium Crystal Structure

Notes

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

343 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

3.39×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Lutetium History

Notes

Discovery

shared discovery

date of discovery

1907

discoverer

Georges Urbain

birth

April 12, 1872

death

November 5, 1938

location of discovery

Paris, France

shared discovery

date of discovery

1907

discoverer

Charles James

birth

April 27, 1880

death

December 10, 1928

location of discovery

New Hampshire, USA

shared discovery

date of discovery

1907

discoverer

Baron Auer von Welsbach

birth

September 1, 1858

death

August 4, 1929

location of discovery

Vienna, Austria

Origin of Element Name

origin

lutetia

origin description

place—Latin for Paris

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Lu

origin

lutetium

origin description

element name

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

name

lutecium

no matching symbol specified

name

cassiopeium

matching symbol

Cp

Quantity

Lutetium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

8×10-1 ppm

Earth's Mantle

71.1 ppb

primitive mantle

Bulk Earth

0.046 ppm

Ocean Water

1.5×10-7 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

2.2 ppm

Ridge

0.88 ppm

U.S. Coal

0.14 ppm

Solar System

0.0367

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

0.06 ± 0.10

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

0.13 ± 0.02

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Lutetium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

lutetium

German

Lutetium

Italian

lutezio

Spanish

lutecio

Portuguese

lutécio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

lutetide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

lutetium

Ligands

lutetido

Heteroatomic Anion

lutetate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

luteta

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

lutety

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