Thallium

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Thallium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Tl

Atomic Number

81

Atomic Weight

Rounded

204.38

for regular calculations

Standard

204.382 to 204.385

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

3

more common with disagreement

1

more common with disagreement

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

2.04

oxidation state: 1

1.62

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p1

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

2P1/2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 6.108194 eV

II  (2)

20.4283 eV  

III (3)

29.83 eV    

Electron Affinity

0.377 ± 0.013 eV

 3040 ± 100 cm-1

Density

liquid, 577.15 K

11.291 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

11.800 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

17.22 cm3/mol

Melting Point

577.15 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

1746.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

43.8 W/(m K)

300 K, polycrystalline

46.1 W/(m K)

298.2 K, polycrystalline

46.1 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

46.9 W/(m K)

200 K, polycrystalline

49.4 W/(m K)

see all 30 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

144 pm

double bond

142 pm

triple bond

150 pm

Atomic Radius

171 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

4.31 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

162.1 kJ/mol

Quantity

Thallium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 6.108194 eV

II  (2)

20.4283 eV  

III (3)

29.83 eV    

Electron Affinity

0.377 ± 0.013 eV

 3040 ± 100 cm-1

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

85530 eV  

LI   (2s)

15347 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

14698 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

12658 eV  

see all 21 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p1

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

2P1/2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

79.4409

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

79.4409

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

29.8421

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

59.6842

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 15 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

84.2%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.962

ωL1

0.124

ωL2

0.384

ωL3

0.332

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.069

F13

0.615

F23

0.121

Quantity

Thallium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 577.15 K

11.291 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

11.800 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

204.38 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

204.382 g/mol to 204.385 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

17.22 cm3/mol

Physical Form

soft blue-white metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

29.9×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

α-thallium, solid, 293 K

818 m/s

calculated value

Young's Modulus

7.9 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.450

Electrical Resistivity

solid, 295 K

16.4×10-8 Ohm m

Contact Potential

3.84 eV

Photoelectric Work Function

3.68 eV

Superconducting Transition Temperature

ambient pressure

2.39 K

0 Pa

2.39 K

Superconducting Critical Magnetic Field at Absolute Zero

171×10-4 T

Superconducting Energy Gap

0 K

7.35×10-4 eV

Mineralogical Hardness

1.2

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

35.9 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.0279 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

17 cm3

Quantity

Thallium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

3

more common with disagreement

1

more common with disagreement

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

2.04

oxidation state: 1

1.62

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3, hybridsp2

1.96

oxidation state: 1, orbitalp

0.76

Sanderson Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

2.246

oxidation state: 1

0.99

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.44

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

10.58 eV

Pauling units

 1.789  

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

2.04

Nagle Electronegativity

1.59

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

3.2 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

2.1

oxidation state: 1

1.55

Chemical Hardness

2.9 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

182 kJ/mol    

per atom

  1.88 eV/atom

Quantity

Thallium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

577.15 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

1746.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

43.8 W/(m K)

300 K, polycrystalline

46.1 W/(m K)

298.2 K, polycrystalline

46.1 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

46.9 W/(m K)

200 K, polycrystalline

49.4 W/(m K)

see all 30 conductivities ...

Critical Point

2329 K

Vapor Pressure

1485 °C

100 kPa

1188 °C

10 kPa

979 °C

1 kPa

see all 16 pressures ...

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

4.31 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

162.1 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

26.32 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.129 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

1.47 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

78.5 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

96 K  

Quantity

Thallium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-28-0

DOT Number

compounds, n.o.s.

1707

ICSC Number

0077

RTECS Number

XG3425000

UN Number

3288

Quantity

Thallium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

171 pm

Orbital Radius

131.9 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

144 pm

double bond

142 pm

triple bond

150 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

145 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +1

coordination number: 6

164 pm  

coordination number: 8

173 pm  

coordination number: 12

184 pm  

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 4

 89 pm  

coordination number: 6

102.5 pm

coordination number: 8

112 pm  

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +1

coordination number: 6

150 pm  

coordination number: 8

159 pm  

coordination number: 12

170 pm  

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 4

 75 pm  

coordination number: 6

 88.5 pm

coordination number: 8

 98 pm  

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

 95 pm

ion charge: +1

140 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

115 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

2.2×102 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

253 pm

Bondi Van Der Waals Radius

196 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

190 pm

Quantity

Thallium Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-thallium

symbol

αTl

allotrope

β-thallium

symbol

βTl

allotrope

γ-thallium

symbol

γTl

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

346 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

3.50×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Thallium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1861

discoverer

Sir William Crookes

birth

June 17, 1832

death

April 4, 1919

location of discovery

London, England

Origin of Element Name

origin

thallos

origin description

color—Greek for green twig

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Tl

origin

thallium

origin description

element name

Quantity

Thallium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

8.5×10-1 ppm

Earth's Mantle

3 ppb

primitive mantle

Earth's Core

0.03 ppm

Bulk Earth

0.012 ppm

Ocean Water

1×10-6 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

4.8 ppm

Ridge

34 ppm

U.S. Coal

1.2 ppm

Human Body

0.5 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

0.002 ppm

Human Hair

0.016 ppm

Human Kidney

0.013 ppm

Human Liver

0.004 ppm to 0.033 ppm

Human Muscle

0.07 ppm

Human Nail

0.0022 ppm

Solar System

0.184

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

0.9 ± 0.2

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

0.81 ± 0.04

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Thallium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

thallium

German

Thallium

Italian

tallio

Spanish

talio

Portuguese

tálio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

thallide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

thallium

Ligands

thallido

Heteroatomic Anion

thallate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

thalla

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

thally

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

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