Curium

Curium Navigation

Other Elements

By Name

By Symbol

By Number

Solutions manuals and the Numerari scientific calculator from KnowledgeDoor Learn more about our solutions manuals Learn more about Numerari

Quantity

Curium Quick Reference

Click button to see citations

Notes

Symbol

Cm

Atomic Number

96

Oxidation States

6

unverified

5

unverified

4

less common

3

more common

2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

1.3

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2

[Rn] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of radon

Orbital Filling Order

[Rn] 7s2 5f7 6d1

[Rn] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of radon

Term Symbol

9D2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I (1)

5.9914 eV

Density

solid, 25 °C

13.510 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

18.05 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1619 ± 50 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

3100 C

Thermal Conductivity

solid, 300 K

10 W/(m K)

estimated

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

166 pm

double bond

136 pm

Quantity

Curium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I (1)

5.9914 eV

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

128241 ± 3 eV

LI   (2s)

 24526 ± 5 eV

LII  (2p1/2)

 23651 ± 5 eV

LIII (2p3/2)

 18970 ± 5 eV

see all 24 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2

[Rn] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of radon

Orbital Filling Order

[Rn] 7s2 5f7 6d1

[Rn] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of radon

Term Symbol

9D2

see expanded configuration ...

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.972

ωL1

0.23 

ωL2

0.501

ωL3

0.482

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.03 

F13

0.68 

F23

0.214

Quantity

Curium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

solid, 25 °C

13.510 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

18.05 cm3/mol

Physical Form

silvery metal

Quantity

Curium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

6

unverified

5

unverified

4

less common

3

more common

2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

1.3

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

1.2

Nagle Electronegativity

1.11

Cohesive Energy

per mole

385 kJ/mol    

per atom

  3.99 eV/atom

Quantity

Curium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1619 ± 50 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

3100 C

Thermal Conductivity

solid, 300 K

10 W/(m K)

estimated

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

123 K

Quantity

Curium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-51-9

Quantity

Curium Atomic Size

Notes

Orbital Radius

165.7 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

166 pm

double bond

136 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

169 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6

111 pm

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 6

 99 pm

coordination number: 8

109 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6

97 pm

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 6

85 pm

coordination number: 8

95 pm

Quantity

Curium Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-curium

symbol

αCm

allotrope

β-curium

symbol

βCm

Quantity

Curium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1944

discoverer

Glenn Theodore Seaborg

birth

April 19, 1912

death

February 25, 1999

discoverer

Ralph A. James

discoverer

Albert Ghiorso

birth

July 15, 1915

location of discovery

Metallurgical Laboratory, Chicago, Illinois

Origin of Element Name

origin

Pierre and Marie Curie

origin description

people—Pierre was a French physicist and Marie was a Polish-born French chemist and physicist. They both shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics with Antoine Henri Becquerel. (Marie Curie also received the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.)

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Cm

origin

curium

origin description

element name

Quantity

Curium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

curium

German

Curium

Italian

curio

Spanish

curio

Portuguese

curio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

curide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

curium

Ligands

curido

Heteroatomic Anion

curate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

cura

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

cury

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

Campbell, J. L. "Fluorescence Yields and Coster–Kronig Probabilities for the Atomic L Subshells. Part II: The L1 Subshell Revisited." Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, volume 95, number 1, 2009, pp. 115–124. doi:10.1016/j.adt.2008.08.002

Campbell, J. L. "Fluorescence Yields and Coster–Kronig Probabilities for the Atomic L Subshells." Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, volume 85, number 2, 2003, pp. 291–315. doi:10.1016/S0092-640X(03)00059-7

Connelly, Neil G., Ture Damhus, Richard M. Hartshorn, and Alan T. Hutton. Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry: IUPAC Recommendations 2005. Cambridge: RSC Publishing, 2005.

Cordero, Beatriz, Verónica Gómez, Ana E. Platero-Prats, Marc Revés, Jorge Echeverría, Eduard Cremades, Flavia Barragán, and Santiago Alvarez. "Covalent Radii Revisited." Dalton Transactions, number 21, 2008, pp 2832–2838. doi:10.1039/b801115j

de Podesta, Michael. Understanding the Properties of Matter, 2nd edition. London: Taylor & Francis, 2002.

Dronskowski, Richard. Computational Chemistry of Solid State Materials. Weinheim, Germany: WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2005.

Emsley, John. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Emsley, John. The Elements, 3rd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Firestone, Richard B. Table of Isotopes, 8th edition, volume 2. Edited by Virginia S. Shirley, with assistant editors Coral M. Baglin, S. Y. Frank Chu, and Jean Zipkin. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996.

Greenwood, N. N., and A. Earnshaw. Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997.

Ho, C. Y., R. W. Powell, and P. E. Liley. "Thermal Conductivity of the Elements: A Comprehensive Review." Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, volume 3, supplement 1, 1974, pp. I–1 to I–796.

Hoffman, Darleane C., Albert Ghiorso, and Glenn T. Seaborg. The Transuranium People: The Inside Story. London, England: Imperial College Press, 2000.

Huheey, James E., Ellen A. Keiter, and Richard L Keiter. Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th edition. New York: HarperCollins College Publishers, 1993.

Ihde, Aaron J. The Development of Modern Chemistry. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1984.

Indelicato, P., J. P. Santos, S. Boucard, and J.-P. Desclaux. "QED and Relativistic Corrections in Superheavy Elements." The European Physical Journal D - Atomic, Molecular, Optical and Plasma Physics, volume 45, number 1, 2007, pp. 155–170. doi:10.1140/epjd/e2007-00229-y

Jr., Elbert J. Little,, and Mark M. Jones. "A Complete Table of Electronegativities." Journal of Chemical Education, volume 37, number 5, 1960, pp. 231–233. doi:10.1021/ed037p231

Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas, and Peter Scott. The f Elements. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

King, H. W. "Temperature-Dependent Allotropic Structures of the Elements." Bulletin of Alloy Phase Diagrams, volume 3, number 2, 1982, pp. 275–276. doi:10.1007/BF02892394

Kittel, Charles. Introduction to Solid State Physics, 8th edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2005.

Konings, R. J. M. "Thermochemical and Thermophysical Properties of Curium and its Oxides." Journal of Nuclear Materials, volume 298, number 3, 2001, pp. 255–268. doi:10.1016/S0022-3115(01)00652-3

Konings, Rudy J. M., and Ondrej Beneš. "The Thermodynamic Properties of the f-Elements and Their Compounds. I. The Lanthanide and Actinide Metals." Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, volume 39, number 4, 2010, pp. 043102–1 to 043102–47. doi:10.1063/1.3474238

Lide, David R., editor. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 88th edition. Boca Raton, Florida: Taylor & Francis Group, 2008.

Marshall, James L. Discovery of the Elements: A Search for the Fundamental Principles of the Universe, 2nd edition. Boston, MA: Pearson Custom Publishing, 2002.

Martin, W. C. "Electronic Structure of the Elements." The European Physical Journal C — Particles and Fields, volume 15, number 1–4, 2000, pp. 78–79. doi:10.1007/BF02683401

Miessler, Gary L., and Donald A. Tarr. Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.

Nagle, Jeffrey K. "Atomic Polarizability and Electronegativity." Journal of the American Chemical Society, volume 112, number 12, 1990, pp. 4741–4747. doi:10.1021/ja00168a019

Nobel Foundation. Glenn T. Seaborg: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1951/seaborg-bio.html. Accessed on July 1, 2009.

Oxtoby, David W., H. P. Gillis, and Alan Campion. Principles of Modern Chemistry, 6th edition. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2008.

Pauling, Linus. The Nature of the Chemical Bond, 3rd edition. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1960.

Pekka Pyykkö. Self-Consistent, Year-2009 Covalent Radii. http://www.chem.helsinki.fi/~pyykko/Radii09.pdf. Accessed on November 20, 2010.

Porter, F.T., and M. S. Freedman. "Recommended Atomic Electron Binding Energies, 1s to 6p3/2, for the Heavy Elements, Z = 84 to 103." Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, volume 7, number 4, 1978, pp. 1267–1284.

Pyykkö, Pekka, and Michiko Atsumi. "Molecular Double-Bond Covalent Radii for Elements Li-E112." Chemistry - A European Journal, volume 15, number 46, 2009, pp. 12770–12779. doi:10.1002/chem.200901472

Pyykkö, Pekka, and Michiko Atsumi. "Molecular Single-Bond Covalent Radii for Elements 1-118." Chemistry - A European Journal, volume 15, number 1, 2009, pp. 186–197. doi:10.1002/chem.200800987

Rajan, K. Govinda. "The Actinides: Prospects of High Pressure Research." Current Science, volume 53, number 21, 1984, pp. 1115–1127.

Ringnes, Vivi. "Origin of the Names of Chemical Elements." Journal of Chemical Education, volume 66, number 9, 1989, pp. 731–738. doi:10.1021/ed066p731

Sansonetti, J. E., and W. C. Martin. "Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopic Data." Journal Of Physical And Chemical Reference Data, volume 34, number 4, 2005, pp. 1559–2259. doi:10.1063/1.1800011

Scientific Group Thermodata Europe (SGTE). Pure Substances: Part 1—Elements and Compounds from AgBr to Ba3N2. Edited by I. Hurtado and D. Neuschütz. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1999. doi:10.1007/10652891_3

Seaborg, Glenn T., and Walter D. Loveland. The Elements Beyond Uranium. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1990.

Shannon, R. D. "Revised Effective Ionic Radii and Systematic Studies of Interatomic Distances in Halides and Chalcogenides." Acta Crystallographica Section A, volume 32, number 5, 1976, pp. 751–767. doi:10.1107/S0567739476001551

Silbey, Robert J., Robert A. Alberty, and Moungi G. Bawendi. Physical Chemistry, 4th edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.

Singman, Charles N. "Atomic Volume and Allotropy of the Elements." Journal of Chemical Education, volume 61, number 2, 1984, pp. 137–142. doi:10.1021/ed061p137

Soukhanov, Anne H., editor. The American Heritage Dictionary Of The English Language, 3rd edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1992.

Stewart, G. R. "Measurement of Low-Temperature Specific Heat." Review of Scientific Instruments, volume 54, number 1, 1983, pp. 1–11. doi:10.1063/1.1137207

Tari, A. The Specific Heat of Matter at Low Temperatures. London: Imperial College Press, 2003.

Thompson, S. G., A. Ghiorso, and G. T. Seaborg. "The New Element Berkelium (Atomic Number 97)." Physical Review, volume 80, number 5, 1950, pp. 781–789. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.80.781

Waber, J. T., and Don T. Cromer. "Orbital Radii of Atoms and Ions." Journal of Chemical Physics, volume 42, number 12, 1965, pp. 4116–4123. doi:10.1063/1.1695904

Weeks, Mary Elvira, and Henry M. Leicester. Discovery of the Elements, 7th edition. Easton, PA: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968.

Yaws, Carl L. The Yaws Handbook of Physical Properties for Hydrocarbons and Chemicals. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company, 2005.