Molybdenum

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Molybdenum Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Mo

Atomic Number

42

Atomic Weight

95.96 ± 0.02

Oxidation States

 6

more common

 5

less common with disagreement

 4

more common with disagreement

 3

less common with disagreement

 2

less common with disagreement

 1

less common

 0

less common

-1

less common

-2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 6

2.35

oxidation state: 5

2.27

oxidation state: 4

2.24

oxidation state: 3

2.19

oxidation state: 2

2.16

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Kr] 4d5 5s1

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Orbital Filling Order

[Kr] 5s1 4d5

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Term Symbol

7S3

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 7.09243 eV    

II  (2)

16.16 eV       

III (3)

27.13 ± 0.12 eV

IV  (4)

46.4 ± 0.2 eV  

see all 42 energies ...

Electron Affinity

0.7472 ± 0.0002 eV

  6027 ± 2 cm-1   

Density

liquid, 2895.15 K

 9.330 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

10.200 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

9.38 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 atm

2895 K

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point (melting point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

4912.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K

134 W/(m K)

300 K

138 W/(m K)

298.2 K

138 W/(m K)

273.2 K

139 W/(m K)

200 K

143 W/(m K)

see all 50 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

138 pm

double bond

121 pm

triple bond

113 pm

Atomic Radius

140 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

27.6 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

594.1 kJ/mol

Quantity

Molybdenum Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 7.09243 eV    

II  (2)

16.16 eV       

III (3)

27.13 ± 0.12 eV

IV  (4)

46.4 ± 0.2 eV  

see all 42 energies ...

Electron Affinity

0.7472 ± 0.0002 eV

  6027 ± 2 cm-1   

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

20000 eV  

LI   (2s)

 2866 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

 2625 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

 2520 eV  

see all 12 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Kr] 4d5 5s1

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Orbital Filling Order

[Kr] 5s1 4d5

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Term Symbol

7S3

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

41.1256

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

41.1256

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

15.4384

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

30.8768

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 10 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

88.8%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.767 

ωL1

0.0100

ωL2

0.034 

ωL3

0.037 

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.10 

F13

0.57 

F23

0.112

Quantity

Molybdenum Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 2895.15 K

 9.330 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

10.200 g/cm3

Molar Mass

95.96 ± 0.02 g/mol

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

9.38 cm3/mol

Physical Form

gray-black metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

4.8×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

solid

room temperature, longitudinal wave

6250 m/s

room temperature, shear wave

3350 m/s

room temperature, extensional wave

5400 m/s

20 °C

longitudinal wave

6475 m/s

shear wave

3505 m/s

Specific Gravity

68 °F, water at 4 °C (39.2 °F)

10.28

Young's Modulus

324.8 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.293

Electrical Resistivity

solid

200 K

3.131×10-8 Ohm m

273 K

4.85×10-8 Ohm m

293 K

5.34×10-8 Ohm m

300 K

5.52×10-8 Ohm m

400 K

8.02×10-8 Ohm m

see all 45 resistivities ...

Contact Potential

4.28 eV

Photoelectric Work Function

4.25 eV

Thermionic Work Function

4.20 eV

Superconducting Transition Temperature

0.915 ± 0.005 K

Superconducting Critical Magnetic Field at Absolute Zero

95×10-4 T

Superconducting Energy Gap

0 K

2.7×10-4 eV

Mineralogical Hardness

5.5

Vickers Hardness

metalloceramic

293 K

1530 MN/m2

533 K

1040 MN/m2

see all 5 hardnesses ...

Reflectivity

surface polished

0.5 μm

46%

0.6 μm

48%

0.8 μm

52%

see all 9 reflectivities ...

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

272.5 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.00366 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

9 cm3

Quantity

Molybdenum Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

 6

more common

 5

less common with disagreement

 4

more common with disagreement

 3

less common with disagreement

 2

less common with disagreement

 1

less common

 0

less common

-1

less common

-2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 6

2.35

oxidation state: 5

2.27

oxidation state: 4

2.24

oxidation state: 3

2.19

oxidation state: 2

2.16

Sanderson Electronegativity

oxidation state: 6

2.20

oxidation state: 5

1.73

oxidation state: 4

1.40

oxidation state: 3

1.15

oxidation state: 2

0.90

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

1.30

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

8.71 eV

Pauling units

1.47   

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

2.16

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

3.0992 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

1.26

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

3.9 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 6

2.3

oxidation state: 4

1.95

Chemical Hardness

3.1 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

658 kJ/mol    

per atom

  6.82 eV/atom

Quantity

Molybdenum Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 atm

2895 K

ITS-90 first-quality, secondary reference point (melting point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

4912.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K

134 W/(m K)

300 K

138 W/(m K)

298.2 K

138 W/(m K)

273.2 K

139 W/(m K)

200 K

143 W/(m K)

see all 50 conductivities ...

Critical Point

9450 K

Vapor Pressure

4606 °C

100 kPa

3939 °C

10 kPa

3434 °C

1 kPa

3039 °C

100 Pa

2721 °C

10 Pa

2469 °C

1 Pa

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

27.6 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

594.1 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

24.06 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.251 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

1.83 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

423 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

377 K

Quantity

Molybdenum Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7439-98-7

ICSC Number

1003

RTECS Number

QA4680000

UN Number

3089

Quantity

Molybdenum Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

140 pm

Orbital Radius

152.0 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

138 pm

double bond

121 pm

triple bond

113 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

154 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6

83 pm  

ion charge: +4, coordination number: 6

79.0 pm

ion charge: +5

coordination number: 4

60 pm  

coordination number: 6

75 pm  

ion charge: +6

coordination number: 4

55 pm  

coordination number: 5

64 pm  

coordination number: 6

73 pm  

coordination number: 7

87 pm  

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6

69 pm  

ion charge: +4, coordination number: 6

65.0 pm

ion charge: +5

coordination number: 4

46 pm  

coordination number: 6

61 pm  

ion charge: +6

coordination number: 4

41 pm  

coordination number: 5

50 pm  

coordination number: 6

59 pm  

coordination number: 7

73 pm  

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +6

62 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

93 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

2.1×102 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

239 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

145 pm

Quantity

Molybdenum Crystal Structure

Notes

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

272 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

6.42×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Molybdenum History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1781

discoverer

Peter Jacob Hjelm

birth

October 2, 1746

death

October 7, 1813

location of discovery

Uppsala, Sweden

Origin of Element Name

origin

molybdos

origin description

mineral—Greek for lead

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Mo

origin

molybdenum

origin description

element name

Quantity

Molybdenum Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

1.2 ppm

Earth's Mantle

39 ppb

primitive mantle

Earth's Core

5 ppm

Bulk Earth

1.7 ppm

Ocean Water

0.01 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Ridge

30 ppm

River Water

0.001 ppm

U.S. Coal

3.3 ppm

Human Body

5 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

<0.7 ppm

Human Hair

0.06 ppm to 0.2 ppm

Human Kidney

0.9 ppm to 3.1 ppm

Human Liver

1.3 ppm to 5.8 ppm

Human Muscle

0.018 ppm

Bacteria

9.8 ppm

Ferns

0.8 ppm to 2.5 ppm

Fungi

1.4 ppm

Solar System

2.55

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

1.92 ± 0.05

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

1.96 ± 0.02

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Molybdenum Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

molybdène

German

Molybdän

Italian

molibdeno

Spanish

molibdeno

Portuguese

molibdênio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

molybdenide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

molybdenum

Ligands

molybdenido

Heteroatomic Anion

molybdate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

molybda

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

molybdy

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

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