Rutherfordium

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Rutherfordium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Rf

Atomic Number

104

Oxidation States

4

more common

3

unverified

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2

[Rn] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of radon

Orbital Filling Order

[Rn] 7s2 5f14 6d2

[Rn] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of radon

Term Symbol

3F2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I (1)

5.1 eV

Melting Point

2400 K

Boiling Point

5800 K

predicted value

Thermal Conductivity

solid, 300 K

23 W/(m K)

derived value

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

157 pm

double bond

140 pm

triple bond

131 pm

Quantity

Rutherfordium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I (1)

5.1 eV

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2

[Rn] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of radon

Orbital Filling Order

[Rn] 7s2 5f14 6d2

[Rn] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of radon

Term Symbol

3F2

see expanded configuration ...

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.973

ωL1

0.291

ωL2

0.544

ωL3

0.611

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.01 

F13

0.52 

F23

0.181

Quantity

Rutherfordium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

4

more common

3

unverified

Quantity

Rutherfordium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

2400 K

Boiling Point

5800 K

predicted value

Thermal Conductivity

solid, 300 K

23 W/(m K)

derived value

Quantity

Rutherfordium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

53850-36-5

Quantity

Rutherfordium Atomic Size

Notes

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

157 pm

double bond

140 pm

triple bond

131 pm

Quantity

Rutherfordium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1969

discoverer

Albert Ghiorso

birth

July 15, 1915

discoverer

Matti Nurmia

discoverer

James Harris

discoverer

Kari Eskola

discoverer

Pirkko Eskola

location of discovery

Berkeley, California

Origin of Element Name

origin

Ernest Rutherford

origin description

person—New Zealand-born British chemist and physicist who won the 1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Rf

origin

rutherfordium

origin description

element name

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

name

dubnium

matching symbol

Db

name

kurchatovium

matching symbol

Ku

name

unnilquadium

matching symbol

Unq

name

eka-hafnium

no matching symbol specified

Quantity

Rutherfordium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

rutherfordium

German

Rutherfordium

Italian

rutherfordio

Spanish

rutherfordio

Portuguese

ruterfórdio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

rutherfordide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

rutherfordium

Ligands

rutherfordido

Heteroatomic Anion

rutherfordate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

rutherforda

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

rutherfordy

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

Connelly, Neil G., Ture Damhus, Richard M. Hartshorn, and Alan T. Hutton. Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry: IUPAC Recommendations 2005. Cambridge: RSC Publishing, 2005.

de Podesta, Michael. Understanding the Properties of Matter, 2nd edition. London: Taylor & Francis, 2002.

Emsley, John. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Emsley, John. The Elements, 3rd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Firestone, Richard B. Table of Isotopes, 8th edition, volume 2. Edited by Virginia S. Shirley, with assistant editors Coral M. Baglin, S. Y. Frank Chu, and Jean Zipkin. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996.

Ghiorso, A., B. G. Harvey, G. R. Choppin, S. G. Thompson, and G. T. Seaborg. "New Element Mendelevium, Atomic Number 101." Physical Review, volume 98, number 5, 1955, pp. 1518–1519. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.98.1518

Ghiorso, A., J. M. Nitschke, J. R. Alonso, C. T. Alonso, M. Nurmia, G. T. Seaborg, E. K. Hulet, and R. W. Lougheed. "Element 106." Physical Review Letters, volume 33, number 25, 1974, pp. 1490–1493. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.33.1490

Ghiorso, A., M. Nurmia, J. Harris, K. Eskola, and P. Eskola. "Positive Identification of Two Alpha-Particle-Emitting Isotopes of Element 104." Physical Review Letters, volume 22, number 24, 1969, pp. 1317–1320. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.22.1317

Ghiorso, A., S. G. Thompson, G. H. Higgins, G. T. Seaborg, M. H. Studier, P. R. Fields, S. M. Fried, H. Diamond, J. F. Mech, G. L. Pyle, J. R. Huizenga, A. Hirsch, W. M. Manning, C. I. Browne, H. L. Smith, and R. W. Spence. "New Elements Einsteinium and Fermium, Atomic Numbers 99 and 100." Physical Review, volume 99, number 3, 1955, pp. 1048–1049. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.99.1048

Ghiorso, A., T. Sikkeland, J. R. Walton, and G. T. Seaborg. "Element No. 102." Physical Review Letters, volume 1, number 1, 1958, pp. 18–21. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.1.18

Ghiorso, Albert, Matti Nurmia, Kari Eskola, James Harris, and Pirkko Eskola. "New Element Hahnium, Atomic Number 105." Physical Review Letters, volume 24, number 26, 1970, pp. 1498–1503. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.24.1498

Ghiorso, Albert, Torbjørn Sikkeland, Almon E. Larsh, and Robert M. Latimer. "New Element, Lawrencium, Atomic Number 103." Physical Review Letters, volume 6, number 9, 1961, pp. 473–475. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.6.473

Greenwood, N. N., and A. Earnshaw. Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997.

Ho, C. Y., R. W. Powell, and P. E. Liley. "Thermal Conductivity of the Elements: A Comprehensive Review." Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, volume 3, supplement 1, 1974, pp. I–1 to I–796.

Hoffman, Darleane C., Albert Ghiorso, and Glenn T. Seaborg. The Transuranium People: The Inside Story. London, England: Imperial College Press, 2000.

Ihde, Aaron J. The Development of Modern Chemistry. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1984.

Kaldor, Uzi, Ephraim Eliav, and Arie Landau. "Accurate Relativistic Fock-Space Calculations for Many-Electron Atoms." pp. 81–119 in Relativistic Electronic Structure Theory Part 2: Applications. Edited by Peter Schwerdtfeger. Amsterdam: Elsevier B. V., 2004.

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Pekka Pyykkö. Self-Consistent, Year-2009 Covalent Radii. http://www.chem.helsinki.fi/~pyykko/Radii09.pdf. Accessed on November 20, 2010.

Pyykkö, Pekka, and Michiko Atsumi. "Molecular Double-Bond Covalent Radii for Elements Li-E112." Chemistry - A European Journal, volume 15, number 46, 2009, pp. 12770–12779. doi:10.1002/chem.200901472

Pyykkö, Pekka, and Michiko Atsumi. "Molecular Single-Bond Covalent Radii for Elements 1-118." Chemistry - A European Journal, volume 15, number 1, 2009, pp. 186–197. doi:10.1002/chem.200800987

Pyykkö, Pekka, Sebastian Riedel, and Michael Patzschke. "Triple-Bond Covalent Radii." Chemistry - A European Journal, volume 11, number 12, 2005, pp. 3511–3520. doi:10.1002/chem.200401299

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Thompson, S. G., A. Ghiorso, and G. T. Seaborg. "The New Element Berkelium (Atomic Number 97)." Physical Review, volume 80, number 5, 1950, pp. 781–789. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.80.781

Thompson, S. G., K. Street, Jr., A. Ghiorso, and G. T. Seaborg. "The New Element Californium (Atomic Number 98)." Physical Review, volume 80, number 5, 1950, pp. 790–796. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.80.790

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