Gadolinium

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Gadolinium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Gd

Atomic Number

64

Atomic Weight

Rounded

157.3

for regular calculations

Standard

157.25 ± 0.03

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

3

more common with disagreement

2

less common

1

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

1.20

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f7 5d1

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

9D2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 6.14980 eV    

II  (2)

12.09 eV       

III (3)

20.63 ± 0.10 eV

IV  (4)

44.0 ± 0.7 eV  

Density

liquid, 1586.15 K

7.400 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

7.900 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

19.90 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1591 ± 10 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

3546.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

300 K

polycrystalline

10.6 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

10.8 W/(m K)

perpendicular to c-axis

10.4 W/(m K)

273.2 K

polycrystalline

10.4 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

10.4 W/(m K)

perpendicular to c-axis

10.3 W/(m K)

see all 60 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

169 pm

double bond

135 pm

triple bond

132 pm

Atomic Radius

179 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

15.5 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

311.7 kJ/mol

Quantity

Gadolinium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 6.14980 eV    

II  (2)

12.09 eV       

III (3)

20.63 ± 0.10 eV

IV  (4)

44.0 ± 0.7 eV  

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

50239 eV  

LI   (2s)

 8376 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

 7930 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

 7243 eV  

see all 18 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f7 5d1

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

9D2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

62.7435

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

62.7435

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

23.6085

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

47.2170

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 13 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

91.3%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.932

ωL1

0.102

ωL2

0.175

ωL3

0.167

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.190

F13

0.279

F23

0.15 

Quantity

Gadolinium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 1586.15 K

7.400 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

7.900 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

157.3 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

157.25 ± 0.03 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

19.90 cm3/mol

Physical Form

silvery metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

100 °C

9.4×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

solid, 293 K

2680 m/s

calculated value

Young's Modulus

α-gadolinium

54.8 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

α-gadolinium

0.259

Electrical Resistivity

solid, 295 K

134×10-8 Ohm m

Vickers Hardness

cast, 293 K

510 MN/m2 to 638 MN/m2

annealed, 293 K

559 MN/m2

forged, 293 K

952 MN/m2

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

38.3 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.0261 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

20 cm3

Quantity

Gadolinium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

3

more common with disagreement

2

less common

1

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

1.20

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

1.11

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.20

Nagle Electronegativity

1.10

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.25

Cohesive Energy

per mole

400 kJ/mol    

per atom

  4.14 eV/atom

Quantity

Gadolinium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1591 ± 10 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

3546.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

300 K

polycrystalline

10.6 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

10.8 W/(m K)

perpendicular to c-axis

10.4 W/(m K)

273.2 K

polycrystalline

10.4 W/(m K)

parallel to c-axis

10.4 W/(m K)

perpendicular to c-axis

10.3 W/(m K)

see all 60 conductivities ...

Critical Point

8670 K

Vapor Pressure

3262 °C

100 kPa

2703 °C

10 kPa

2300 °C

1 kPa

1994 °C

100 Pa

1755 °C

10 Pa

1563 °C

1 Pa

Curie Point

291.8 K

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

15.5 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

311.7 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

37.03 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.236 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

6.38 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

182 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

155 K

Quantity

Gadolinium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-54-2

Quantity

Gadolinium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

179 pm

Orbital Radius

171.3 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

169 pm

double bond

135 pm

triple bond

132 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

196 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 6

107.8 pm

coordination number: 7

114 pm  

coordination number: 8

119.3 pm

coordination number: 9

124.7 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 6

 93.8 pm

coordination number: 7

100 pm  

coordination number: 8

105.3 pm

coordination number: 9

110.7 pm

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

102 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

180 pm

Quantity

Gadolinium Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-gadolinium

symbol

αGd

allotrope

β-gadolinium

symbol

βGd

allotrope

γ-gadolinium

symbol

γGd

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

358 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

3.02×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Gadolinium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1880

discoverer

Jean-Charles Galissard de Marignac

birth

April 24, 1817

death

April 15, 1894

location of discovery

Geneva, Switzerland

Origin of Element Name

origin

Johan Gadolin

origin description

person—Finnish chemist

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Gd

origin

gadolinium

origin description

element name

Quantity

Gadolinium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

6.2 ppm

Earth's Mantle

571 ppb

primitive mantle

Bulk Earth

0.37 ppm

Ocean Water

7×10-7 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

22.6 ppm

Ridge

6 ppm

U.S. Coal

1.8 ppm

estimated from USGS and literature data

Ferns

0.06 ppm to 0.5 ppm

Fungi

0.3 ppm

Solar System

0.3300

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

1.12 ± 0.04

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

1.08 ± 0.02

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Gadolinium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

gadolinium

German

Gadolinium

Italian

gadolinio

Spanish

gadolinio

Portuguese

gadolíneo

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

gadolinide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

gadolinium

Ligands

gadolinido

Heteroatomic Anion

gadolinate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

gadolina

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

gadoliny

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