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Germanium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Ge

Atomic Number

32

Atomic Weight

Rounded

72.63

for regular calculations

Standard

72.63 ± 0.01

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

4

more common with disagreement

3

less common

2

less common with disagreement

1

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

2.01

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p2

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Term Symbol

3P0

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 7.89943 eV        

II  (2)

15.93461 eV        

III (3)

34.0576 ± 0.0010 eV

IV  (4)

45.7155 ± 0.0010 eV

see all 32 energies ...

Electron Affinity

1.232712 ± 0.000015 eV

 9942.49 ± 0.12 cm-1  

Density

liquid, 1210.40 K

5.585 g/ml  

solid

25 °C

5.3234 ± 0.0025 g/cm3

298 K

5.3234 g/cm3

hydrostatic weighing

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

13.63 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1211.40 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

3100.00 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K

43.2 W/(m K)

300 K

59.9 W/(m K)

298.2 K

60.2 W/(m K)

273.2 K

66.7 W/(m K)

200 K

96.8 W/(m K)

see all 39 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

121 pm

double bond

111 pm

triple bond

114 pm

Atomic Radius

139 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

34.7 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

334.3 kJ/mol

Quantity

Germanium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 7.89943 eV        

II  (2)

15.93461 eV        

III (3)

34.0576 ± 0.0010 eV

IV  (4)

45.7155 ± 0.0010 eV

see all 32 energies ...

Electron Affinity

1.232712 ± 0.000015 eV

 9942.49 ± 0.12 cm-1  

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

11103 eV  

LI   (2s)

 1414.6 eV

LII  (2p1/2)

 1248.1 eV

LIII (2p3/2)

 1217.0 eV

see all 9 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p2

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Term Symbol

3P0

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

31.2937

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

31.2937

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

11.6824

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

23.3648

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 8 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

71.4%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.546 

ωL1

0.0024

ωL2

0.013 

ωL3

0.015 

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.28 

F13

0.53 

F23

0.050

Quantity

Germanium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 1210.40 K

5.585 g/ml  

solid

25 °C

5.3234 ± 0.0025 g/cm3

298 K

5.3234 g/cm3

hydrostatic weighing

Molar Mass

Rounded

72.63 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

72.63 ± 0.01 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

13.63 cm3/mol

Physical Form

gray white cubic crystals

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

300 K

5.9×10-6 K-1

100 K

2.2×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

solid

5400 m/s

Young's Modulus

79.9 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.320

Dielectric Constant

11 component of dielectric tensor, room temperature, 34×109 Hz

12.7

22 component of dielectric tensor, room temperature, 34×109 Hz

12.7

33 component of dielectric tensor, room temperature, 34×109 Hz

12.8

500 Hz to 3×1010 Hz

15.8 ± 0.2

4 K, 9.2×109 Hz

16.0 ± 0.3

Electrical Resistivity

solid, 300 K

0.4762 Ohm m

Contact Potential

4.5 eV

Photoelectric Work Function

4.5 eV

Superconducting Transition Temperature

11.5 GPa

5.35 K

maximum temperature

Mineralogical Hardness

6.0

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

77.2 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.0129 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

13 cm3

Quantity

Germanium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

4

more common with disagreement

3

less common

2

less common with disagreement

1

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

2.01

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4, hybridsp3

2.33

oxidation state: 2, orbitalp

1.30

Sanderson Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

2.618

oxidation state: 2

0.56

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

2.02

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

11.80 eV

Pauling units

 1.994  

Allen Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

1.994

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

2.01

Boyd-Edgecombe Electronegativity

1.99

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

5.1318 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

1.81

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

4.6 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

1.9

oxidation state: 2

1.8

Chemical Hardness

3.4 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

372 kJ/mol    

per atom

  3.85 eV/atom

Quantity

Germanium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1211.40 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

3100.00 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K

43.2 W/(m K)

300 K

59.9 W/(m K)

298.2 K

60.2 W/(m K)

273.2 K

66.7 W/(m K)

200 K

96.8 W/(m K)

see all 39 conductivities ...

Critical Point

8400 K

Vapor Pressure

2831 °C

100 kPa

2360 °C

10 kPa

2014 °C

1 kPa

1750 °C

100 Pa

1541 °C

10 Pa

1371 °C

1 Pa

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

34.7 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

334.3 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

23.222 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.320 J/(g K)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

373 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

403 K

Quantity

Germanium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-56-4

Quantity

Germanium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

139 pm

Orbital Radius

109.0 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

121 pm

double bond

111 pm

triple bond

114 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

120 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +2, coordination number: 6

87 pm  

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 4

53.0 pm

coordination number: 6

67.0 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +2, coordination number: 6

73 pm  

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 4

39.0 pm

coordination number: 6

53.0 pm

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +4

 53 pm

ion charge: +2

 93 pm

ion charge: -4

272 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

 76 pm

ion charge: -1

371 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

2.1×102 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

232 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

125 pm

Quantity

Germanium Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-germanium

symbol

αGe

allotrope

β-germanium

alternate name

germanium II

symbol

βGe

allotrope

γ-germanium

alternate name

germanium III

symbol

γGe

allotrope

δ-germanium

alternate name

germanium IV

symbol

δGe

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

245 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

4.42×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Germanium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1886

discoverer

Clemens Alexander Winkler

birth

December 26, 1838

death

October 8, 1904

location of discovery

Freiberg, Germany

Origin of Element Name

origin

Germania

origin description

place—Latin for Germany

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Ge

origin

germanium

origin description

element name

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

name

ekasilicon

matching symbol

Es

name

eka-silicium

no matching symbol specified

Quantity

Germanium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

1.5 ppm

Earth's Mantle

1.2 ppm

primitive mantle

Earth's Core

20 ppm

Bulk Earth

7 ppm

Ocean Water

6×10-5 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

3.3 ppm

U.S. Coal

5.7 ppm

Human Body

5 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Hair

2.3 ppm

Human Kidney

40 ppm

Human Liver

0.15 ppm

Human Muscle

0.14 ppm

Human Nail

1.2 ppm

Ferns

1.3 ppm

Fungi

2.8 ppm

Solar System

119

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

3.41 ± 0.14

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

3.62 ± 0.04

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Germanium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

germanium

German

Germanium

Italian

germanio

Spanish

germanio

Portuguese

germânio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

germide (general)

Ge4-, germide(4-)

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

germanium (general)

Ge2+, germanium(2+)

Ge4+, germanium(4+)

Ligands

germido (general)

Ge4-, germido(4-)

Heteroatomic Anion

germanate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

germa

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

germy

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